Saturday, March 24, 2012

An Annotated Check List of the Mammals of Michoacán, México, by Bernardo Villa R. and E. Raymond Hall - Full Text


An Annotated Check List of the Mammals
of Michoacán, México

University of Kansas Publications
Museum of Natural History

Volume 1, No. 22, pp. 431-472, 2 plates, 1 figure in text
December 27, 1949

University of Kansas
University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History

Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, A. Byron Leonard,
Edward H. Taylor, Robert W. Wilson

Volume 1, No. 22, pp. 431-472, 2 plates, 1 figure in text
December 27, 1949

University of KansasLawrence, Kansas

An Annotated Check List of the Mammals
of Michoacán, México
When General Lázaro Cardenas was President of the Republic of México, encouragement was given by his administration to linguistic groups of native American peoples to record in printed form, eventually in their native languages, accounts of their cultural accomplishments and accounts of the natural resources of the regions concerned. For the Tarascan "Empire" centering in the state of Michoacán, a committee of Mexicans and citizens of the United States of America was formed to forward these aims. Under the leadership of ethnologists on the committee, especially Professor Daniel Rubin F. de la Borbolla and Professor Ralph L. Beals, invitations to coöperate in the studies were extended to biologists. One of us (Hall) was invited to investigate the fauna of native wild mammals. In 1943, assisted by a fellowship which Hall at that time held from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, and with support from Miss Annie M. Alexander, through the University of California Museum of Vertebrate Zoölogy, most of March—March 3 to March 29, 1943—was spent in the state of Michoacán.
Bernardo Villa R. of the Instituto de Biología de la Universidad de México was a member of the party from March 23 to 27. Previously, March 4 to 22, Roberto Alcántar from the Universidad de Michoacán, in Morelia, participated in the field work. Mr. J. R. Alcorn was active in the collecting from the beginning until he entrained for the United States on March 24. The remainder of the field party was made up of E. Raymond Hall, his wife Mary F. Hall, and their three sons, William Joel, Hubert H., and Benjamin D. Hall.
From March 4 to 15 we collected at, and in the vicinity of, Pátzcuaro. We were housed in two cottages kindly made available by Sr. Efrain Buenrostro, in Campo Turista Janitzio, 200 meters northwest of the railroad station in Colonia Revolución. The shore of Lake Pátzcuaro, the cultivated fields surrounded by stone fences, and the oak and pine forests roundabout provided varied habitats.
From March 16 to 23 we collected in the territory 1 to 6 miles[436]south of Tacámbaro, making our headquarters in the Europa Hotel, in the town. The steep main street of Tacámbaro with native pines at the upper end descends to plantings of bananas and sugar cane at the lower end. Our collecting all was done below (south of) the town in the semitropical country and none at all was done above (north of) the town.
From March 24 to 27 (three night's trapping) we collected in the vicinity of Zamora, making our headquarters in rooms diagonally across the street intersection from the Hotel Fenix.
The resulting specimens, approximately 650 in number, were deposited in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoölogy at the University of California at Berkeley.
A noteworthy coincidence is that on the very day, February 26, on which we crossed the international border into México at Laredo, the beginning of the new volcano, Paricutín, was announced in the daily press. Our collecting of mammals in Michoacán was nearly all done in sight of the towering white plume of this rapidly heightening volcanic cone and frequently our traps were thickly dusted with its wind-borne ash. Our eagerness at that time to have stations established for observing the effects on vertebrates of the deposition of ash, was gratified in that Dr. Robert T. Hatt independently had the same idea and such observations at appropriate places and times were begun by him and staff members of the Museum of Zoölogy of the University of Michigan. One of us, Villa, was privileged to share in these observations in the spring of 1947.
This continuing interest in the mammals of Michoacán has made it seem, to us, the more desirable to place on record our findings as to kinds and occurrence of species. In doing this we have examined the collections made previously on Cerro Tancítaro and vicinity by the field party led by Mr. Harry Hoogstraal from the University of Illinois and the Chicago Natural History Museum. The specimens of mammals collected by this field party are in the Chicago Natural History Museum and we are obliged to Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Mr. Colin C. Sanborn and the late Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood for the privilege of studying this material.
Drs. William H. Burt and Emmet T. Hooper, of the Museum of Zoölogy of the University of Michigan, lent to us for examination five specimens of bats, of as many species, which they had taken in Michoacán. Drs. Remington Kellogg and Henry W. Setzer have provided us with data on specimens of deer and peccary from Michoacán which are in the United States National Museum.[437]Specimens in the Institute of Biology of the University of México have been used. Financial provision by the Kansas University Endowment Association has enabled us to obtain specimens needed for comparison from other parts of México.
In addition to the materials mentioned above we have used published references to mammals of Michoacán and have prepared the following lists of kinds of mammals positively known to us to occur in the Mexican state of Michoacán. It is noteworthy that specimens recorded in the literature from Acámbaro, Michoacán, no longer are to be ascribed to Michoacán, since a relocation of the boundary between the states of Michoacán and Guanajuato, places Acámbaro in the latter state.
Our aims were: (1) To record kinds of mammals positively known from the state, under the correct scientific name, and vernacular names in English, Spanish, and Tarascan. The first Tarascan name is given in the spelling used by Tarascans followed by the phonetic equivalent in English in parentheses. (2) To indicate the geographic range of each kind in the state, and, (3) To record miscellaneous information which it is thought probably will be useful in one way or another to other students whose work certainly will lengthen the list of kinds of mammals known from Michoacán and otherwise add to our knowledge of them.
Several kinds of bats, of which we lack records, certainly occur in Michoacán. Four or five kinds of cats (genus Felis), species of the genera Potos, Lutra, Tayra, Grison, and several other kinds of mammals of which we now lack positive record, also probably occur there; the list of kinds, we expect, will number more than one hundred species and subspecies when more intensive collecting has been done in the state. In all, we have positive record of 85 kinds of native, wild mammals of which specimens have been examined or recorded from Michoacán. Distances and elevations here are recorded either in the metric system or in the English system, according to the system used on the labels of the specimens concerned. Unless otherwise indicated, catalogue numbers of more than 100,000 are of specimens in the University of California Museum of Vertebrate Zoölogy and numbers of less than 100,000 are of the Chicago Natural History Museum.
Fig. 1. Map of the state of Michoacán showing place names mentioned in the text.
Didelphis mesamericana mesamericana Oken

Opossum; Spanish, Tlacuache; Tarascan, Ujkúri (Ukuri)
Did[elphys]. mes-americana Oken, Lehrbuch d. Naturgesch., pt. 3, 2:1152, 1816, type from northern México.
Didelphis mes-americana, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 16:256, August 18, 1902.
Specimens examined, 7: nos. 100063-100067, 100074, 51396, distributed by localities as follows: Pátzcuaro (3 mi. N, 6,700 ft., 1; 2 mi. W, 6,700 ft., 2; 5 mi. S, 7,800 ft., 1), 4; Tancítaro, 1; 1-¾ mi. S Tacámbaro, 5,700 ft., 1; 1 mi. E and 6 mi. S Tacámbaro, 1.
Remarks.—The coarse overhair is white all the way to the base in three specimens but is black in its distal two thirds (white in basal third) in four specimens. The overhair, six centimeters anterior to the base of the tail, is 83 (80-85) mm. long in the three gray specimens (those with white overhair) and 68 (64-72) mm. long in the black specimens. The ears and all four feet are black. The tail is black in its proximal half and white in its distal half except in[439]one specimen in which the distal half is almost as dark as the proximal half. Of the two largest specimens, one is a female from 1¾ mi. S Tacámbaro and the other, a male is from 6 mi. S of the same place. Measurements are: Total length, ♂ 810, ♀ 786; length of tail, ♂ 360, ♀ 348; length of hind foot, —, 58; condylobasal length, 110.0; 99.6; zygomatic breadth, 68.5; 59.6; length of nasals, 59.7, 45.0. The tail amounts to 48, 48 and 47 per cent of the total length in specimens from Pátzcuaro; 50 per cent in one from Tancítaro; 45 and 44 per cent in two from Tacámbaro. The subspeciesmesamericana probably intergrades with Didelphis virginiana virginiana by way of D. m. texensis and D. v. pigra, as Davis (1944:375) and other writers suggest, in which case the proper name of the subspecies mesamericana would be Didelphis virginiana mesamericana. Until intergradation is actually demonstrated, it seems best to use the name D. m. mesamericana.
Most of our specimens were caught in steel traps, at meat baits, set for small carnivores.
Marmosa canescens canescens (Allen)

Murine Opossum; Spanish, Ratón Tlacuache
Didelphis (Micoureus) canescens Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 5:235, September 22, 1893, type from Santo Domingo de Guzman, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, México.
Marmosa canescens Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 9:58, March 15, 1897.
Range.—Below Quercus belt, probably throughout western half of state.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 100062, 1 mi. E and 6 mi. S Tacámbaro, 4,000 ft.
Remarks.—The one unsexed subadult measures 5.5 mm. from Ml to M3 inclusive, which measurement is near the minimum that Tate (1933: table 1, Sec. 5) records for this subspecies but larger than the maximum that he (loc. cit.) records for the subspeciessinaloae which occurs to the northward of Michoacán. Tate (op. cit.:141) lists two other specimens from Los Reyes. Our specimen was caught in a mouse trap set in dry grass between a sugar cane field and a patch of banana trees.
Sorex saussurei saussurei Merriam

Saussure Shrew; Spanish, Musaraña
Sorex saussurei Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 7:173, September 29, 1892, type from north slope Sierra Nevada de Colima, approximately 8,000 feet, Jalisco.
Range.—In and above Quercus belt, probably throughout northeastern half of state.
Specimens examined, 14: nos. 8688, 52131-52141, 100076, 100077, distributed by localities as follows: Pátzcuaro, 1; 4 mi. S Pátzcuaro, 7,800 ft., 2; Mount Tancítaro (7,800 ft., 8; 9,500 ft., 1; 9,600 ft., 1; 10,000 ft., 1), 11.
Remarks.—Two males from Mount Tancítaro, with much worn teeth, catalogue nos. 52132 and 52138, measure, respectively, as follows: Total length, 122, 114; length of tail, 46, 43; length of hind foot, 15, 14; condylobasal length, 18.4, 18.3; palatal length, 8.0, 7.3; cranial breadth, 9.4, 9.2; least interorbital breadth, 3.7, 3.8; maxillary breadth, 5.5, 5.5; maxillary tooth-row, 6.8, 6.7. The long palate in no. 52132 and the broad brain case in both specimens appear to be only individual variations or possibly variations correlated with the advanced age of the two animals since in other features they do not differ from specimens which are smaller in these two dimensions. Jackson (1928:156) records specimens of this shrew from Mount Patambán and Nahuatzin.
Cryptotis pergracilis pergracilis (Elliot)

Short-tailed Shrew; Spanish, Musaraña Colicorta
Blarina pergracilis Elliot, Field Columb. Mus., publ. 71, zoöl. ser., 3:149, February, 1903, type from Ocotlan, Jalisco, México.
Cryptotis pergracilis pergracilis, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 24:223, October 31, 1911.
Range.—Probably statewide.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 1721 B. Villa R. from Colonia Ibarra, Pátzcuaro.
Remarks.—Our one specimen, originally a mount, proves to have a crushed brain case. The specimen was saved on March 10, 1944, by P. Luna, who in March, 1943, told one of us (Hall) that many of these shrews fell into the cement fish-rearing tanks at the biological station situated at Colonia Ibarra, a suburb of Pátzcuaro, on the shore of Lake Pátzcuaro. We are indebted to Dr. H. H. T. Jackson for examining our specimen and assigning a name to it.
Balantiopteryx plicata Peters

Sac-winged Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Sacoptero; Tarascan word for bat is Huasís (Wasis)
Balantiopteryx plicata Peters, Monatsber. k. preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 476, 1867, type from Puntaarenas, Costa Rica.
Specimens examined, 2: nos. 52224, 52225, from Apatzingan, 1,040 ft.
Remarks.—This bat is a cave dweller, not infrequently found roosting with other species.
Glossophaga soricina leachii (Gray)

Long-tongued Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Siricotéro
Monophyllus leachii Gray, Voyage of the Sulphur, Zoöl., 1:18, 1844, type from Realejo, Nicaragua.
Glossophaga soricina leachii, Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 46:419, December 31, 1913.
Specimens examined, 4: nos. 11377, Univ. Kan., and alcoholic specimens nos. 950-952 B. Villa R. field numbers, I. B. (specimens in Instituto de Biología, Univ. de México), distributed by localities as follows: Hacienda El Sabino, Michoacán, approximately 25 mi. S Uruapan, 1; El Guayabo, 34 kms. S Uruapan, 3.
Remarks.—Specimens from El Guayabo were taken in a natural cave which they shared with Desmodus rotundus murinus and Artibeus planirostris planirostris.
The length of the thumb averages 7.4 mm. (7.0 to 7.7). As compared with G. s. alticola from northeast Tlaxcala according to the description given by Davis (1944:377), our specimens agree withalticola in length of thumb. In all other characters they correspond to leachii.
Choeronycteris mexicana Tschudi

ongued Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Carilargo
Choeronycteris mexicana Tschudi, Fauna Peruana, p. 72, 1844, type from México.
Specimens examined, 4: nos. 100078-100081, from 2 mi. W Pátzcuaro, 7,700 ft.
Remarks.—A colony of 20 or more bats of this species was found in a natural cave. Four were caught by hand as they flew about after we disturbed them. We returned on the following day, but found that all the bats had left.
Leptonycteris nivalis nivalis (Saussure)

Leaf-nosed Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Lengüilarga
M[=Ischnoglossa]. nivalis Saussure, Revue et Magasin de Zoölogie, 12(ser. 2):492, November, 1860, type from near snow line on Mount Orizaba.
Leptonycteris nivalis, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 13:126, April 6, 1900.
Range.—Probably middle and higher altitudes through state.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 91911, Univ. Michigan Mus. Zoöl., from 1050 m., 12 miles (on Huetamo Road) south of Tzitzio.
Remarks.—The subspecific name L. n. nivalis is tentatively applied to this specimen in the absence of an opportunity to compare it directly with the holotype or topotypes of Leptonycteris nivalis yerbabuenae Martinez and Villa (1940:291). Unfortunately, the materials on which this name, L. n. yerbabuenae, was based all were destroyed in 1945 or 1946 while Villa was absent from the Institute of Biology of the University of México.
Artibeus planirostris planirostris (Spix)
Big Leaf-nosed Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Zapotero
Phyllostoma planirostre Spix, Simiarum et vespertilionum Brasiliensium, p. 66, 1823, type from suburbs of Bahia, Brazil.
Artibeus planirostris, Dobson, Catal. Chiroptera, British Mus., p. 515 (part), 1878.
Range.—Probably southwestern part of state.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 945b B. Villa R., field no., I.B., El Guayabo, 34 kms. S Uruapan.
Measurements.—Head and body, 89.0 mm.; total length of skull to front of upper canines, 28.0; mastoid breadth, 15.5; zygomatic breadth, 17.8; maxillary width across first upper molars, 13.2; breadth across cingula of upper canines, 7.9; greatest length of one ramus of lower jaw including anteriormost incisor tooth, 19.4; length of upper tooth-row, anterior border of canine to posterior border of M2, 10.4; length of lancet (nose-leaf), 9.0; width of lancet, 6.5; width of horseshoe, 9.0; forearm, 57.3; 3rd metacarpal, 52.6; 1st (basal) phalanx, 16.0; 2nd (middle) phalanx, 26.7; 3rd (distal) phalanx, 18.5; 4th metacarpal, 50.7; 1st (basal) phalanx, 14; 2nd phalanx, 18.8; 5th metacarpal, 54; 1st (basal) phalanx, 11.2; 2nd phalanx, 13.2; lower leg, 22.9; foot with claws, 15.2; calcar, 6.5.
Remarks.—Our single specimen, a female, was caught on July 28, 1945, by my (B. Villa's) father, Andres Villa, in a natural cave, roosting with the individuals of Glossophaga s. leachii. The northernmost locality in México from which A. p. planirostris previously has been recorded is El Papayo, in the state of Guerrero (Andersen, 1908:238), approximately 225 kilometers to the southward. A. p. planirostris and Artibeus jamaicensis closely resemble each other but A. planirostris may be recognized by the presence of a minute M3 which is absent in A. jamaicensis. Specimen no. 945b has M3 present on both sides of the upper jaw. From Artibeus hirsutus, known from La Salada, Michoacán, approximately 40 miles north and slightly to the east of El Guayabo, our specimen differs in the apparently hairless tibia and interfemoral membrane. The measurements, of no. 945b, recorded above, if compared with those given by Andersen (1908:246) are seen mostly to fall within the range recorded for A. hirsutus. Where measurements are outside this range, they fall within the range of those of the larger A. p. planirostris. We recognize that the Mexican species of Artibeus are not well understood, at least by us.
Artibeus hirsutus K. Andersen

Leaf-nosed Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Zapotero
Artibeus hirsutus K. Andersen, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 18(ser. 7):420, December, 1906, type from La Salada, Michoacán.
Range.—Known from western part of state.
Remarks.—From Michoacán, Andersen (1908:247) examined three specimens, all from the type locality.
Desmodus rotundus murinus Wagner

Vampire Bat; Spanish, Vampiro
D[esmodus]. murinus Wagner, Schreber's Säugethiere, Suppl., 1:377, 1840, type from México.
Desmodus rotundus murinus, Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., publ. 155, zoöl. ser., 10:63, January 10, 1912.
Range.—Statewide, except rare or absent at higher altitudes.
Specimens examined, 6: nos. 944-949 B. Villa R. field numbers, I.B., El Guayabo, 34 kms. S Uruapan.
Remarks.—This species is colonial; usually it is found in large numbers in favorite roosting sites, mainly in natural caves. Four of our specimens, caught in July, are females and two are young males. One, female, no. 944, has one embryo of 40 mm. in length.
Myotis yumanensis lutosus Miller and Allen

Yuma Myotis; Spanish, Murciélago de Yuma
Myotis yumanensis lutosus Miller and Allen, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull., 144:72, May 25, 1928, type from Pátzcuaro, Michoacán.
Myotis yumanensis, Miller, N. Amer. Fauna, 13:67, October 16, 1897.
Range.—Known only from Pátzcuaro and El Molino.
Remarks.—Originally recorded by Miller (1897:67) from Pátzcuaro, the animals from central México were named as a new subspecies by Miller and Allen (1928:72) who record one specimen from El Molino.
Myotis velifer velifer (Allen)

Cave Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Vespertino
Vespertilio velifer J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3:177, December 10, 1890, type from Santa Cruz del Valle, Guadalajara, Jalisco.
Myotis velifer velifer, Allen and Miller, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 144:89, May 25, 1928.
Specimens examined, 17: nos. 100083-100099, from 3 mi. NW Pátzcuaro, 6,700 ft.
Remarks.—Our specimens were taken on March 12, 1943, from a crevice in the wall of an abandoned chapel where 35 or more individuals of both sexes were living. Miller (1897:59) records the species from Pátzcuaro and Miller and Allen (1928:91) record it from there and also from Lake Chapala, La Palma, Acámbaro (now in Guanajuato) and Negrete.
Myotis thysanodes thysanodes Miller

Fringed-tailed Myotis; Spanish, Murciélago Colirugosa
Myotis thysanodes Miller, N. Amer. Fauna, 13:80, October 16, 1897, type from Old Fort Tejon, Kern County, California.
Range.—Known only from Pátzcuaro.
Remarks.—In the original description five specimens are recorded from Pátzcuaro and Miller and Allen (1928:127) mention the same locality of occurence.
Myotis californicus mexicanus (Saussure)

California Myotis; Spanish, Murciélago de California
V[espertilio]. mexicanus Saussure, Rev. et Mag. de Zoöl., 12 (ser. 2):282, 1860, type from somewhere in the warmer part of the state of México.
Myotis californicus mexicanus, Miller, N. Amer. Fauna, 13:73, October 16, 1897.
Range.—Known in Michoacán only from Pátzcuaro.
Remarks.—Specimens from Pátzcuaro are recorded by Miller and Allen (1928:160).
Eptesicus fuscus miradorensis (H. Allen)

Big Brown Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Fusco
S[cotophilus]. miradorensis H. Allen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 287, 1866, type from Mirador, Veracruz.
Eptesicus fuscus miradorensis, Miller, N. Amer. Land Mamm., 1911, p. 62, December 31, 1912.
Range.—Probably statewide.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 91909, Univ. Michigan, Mus. Zoöl., from Rancho Escondido, one mile north of Apo, 6,000 feet elevation, June 29, 1947, female adult, taken by W. H. Burt.
Lasiurus borealis mexicanus (Saussure)

Red Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Rojizo
A[talapha]. mexicana Saussure, Rev. et Mag. de Zoöl., 13(2):97, March, 1861, type probably from Veracruz, Puebla or Oaxaca.
Lasiurus borealis mexicanus, Miller, N. Amer. Fauna, 13:111, October 16, 1897.
Range.—Probably larger part of state.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 89446, Univ. Michigan, Mus. Zoöl., from Nuevo San Juan (Los Conejos), 5 mi. SW Uruapan, May 23, 1945, by W. H. Burt.
Remarks.—This specimen, a male with much worn teeth, answers well to the description of L. b. mexicanus except that the minute premolar between the canine and fourth premolar is missing on each side of the upper jaw. This, however, seems the less remarkable after examination of 18 skulls of L. b. borealis from the United States in two of which these minute premolars are likewise absent; one of the two specimens from the United States has unworn teeth and the other much worn teeth.[445]
Lasiurus cinereus cinereus (Beauvois)

Hoary Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Pardo
Vespertilio cinereus (misspelled linereus) Beauvois, Catal. Raisonné Mus. Peale, Philadelphia, p. 18, 1796, type locality, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Lasiurus cinereus, H. Allen, Monogr. N. Amer. Bats, Smithsonian Misc. Colls., 7(1): 12, June, 1864.
Range.—Higher elevations throughout state.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 89456, Univ. Michigan Mus. Zoöl., from Barranca Seca, May 6, 1945, adult male with much worn teeth, obtained by W. H. Burt.
Corynorhinus rafinesquii mexicanus G. M. Allen

Long-eared Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Narigudo
Corynorhinus megalotis mexicanus Allen, G. M., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoöl., 60:347, April, 1916, type from "near Pacheco," Chihuahua.
Corynorhinus rafinesquii mexicanus, Miller, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull., 128:83, April 29, 1924.
Corynorhinus macrotis pallescens, Miller, N. Amer. Fauna, 13:52, October 16, 1897.
Range.—Known from only Pátzcuaro.
Remarks.—Miller (1897:53) recorded one specimen from Pátzcuaro and Allen (1916:349) merely alludes to Miller's record.
Tadarida mexicana (Saussure)

Mexican Free-tailed Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Coludo
Molossus mexicanus Saussure, Rev. et Mag. de Zoöl., 12:283, July, 1860, type from Cofre de Perote, 13,000 feet, Veracruz.
Tadarida mexicana, Miller, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 128:86, April 29, 1924.
Specimens examined, 12: nos. 100100-100111, distributed by localities as follows: 1 mi. N Zamora, 5,450 ft., 1; 3 mi. N Pátzcuaro, 6,800 ft., 3; 3 mi. NW Pátzcuaro, 6,700 ft., 3; Isla Janitzio, Lago de Pátzcuaro, 6,600 ft., 5.
Remarks.—This species is widespread in México, ranging from sea level to high elevations as at the type locality. In Michoacán most of our specimens were shot as they flew about at early dusk. The five from Isla Janitzio were shot as they clung to the roof of a cave along with scores of other individuals of the same species.
Eumops underwoodi underwoodi Goodwin

Mastiff Bat; Spanish, Murciélago Mastin
Eumops underwoodi Goodwin, Amer. Mus. Novitates, 1075:2, June 27, 1940, type from El Pedrero, 6 km. N Chinaela, approximately 3,000 ft. elevation, Dept. La Paz, Honduras.
Range.—Known only from Tancítaro Mtn.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 89461, Univ. Michigan Mus. Zoöl., from Rancho Escondido, 2 mi. N Apo, Tancítaro Mtn., ♀ ad. with much worn teeth, taken June 11, 1945, by W. H. Burt.
Remarks.—Selected measurements of this specimen are: Total length, 158; ear from notch, 32; mastoid breadth, 16.1; width across[446]crowns of M3, 12.6; maxillary tooth-row (from anterior face of canine above cingulum to posterior face of M3), 11.8. The total length is less than in E. underwoodi or than in Eumops sonoriensisBenson (1947:133); the other measurements given above exceed those of E. sonoriensis and equal or approach those of E. underwoodi. The ears seem not to be connected across the forehead; the color is near (l) Bister above and slightly lighter on the underparts.
The specimen is clearly intermediate in size, as it also is geographically, between Eumops underwoodi underwoodi Goodwin andEumops underwoodi sonoriensis Benson and gives basis for arranging these two named kinds as subspecies of a single species as Benson (1947:134) suggested might prove to be necessary. We are not certain whether this specimen should be referred to the subspeciesunderwoodi or sonoriensis and probably this uncertainty will remain until the range of individual variation in underwoodi is known.
Procyon lotor hernandezii Wagler

Raccoon; Spanish, Mapache; Tarascan, Apátze (Apatz)
Pr[ocyon] hernandezii Wagler, Isis, 24:514, 1831, type from Valley of México, according to Nelson and Goldman (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 44:17, February 21, 1931).
Procyon lotor hernandezii, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3:176, December 10, 1890.
Specimens examined, 2: no. 100113 from 10 mi. ESE Zamora, 5,500 ft., 1; no. 52220 from 15 kms. W Apatzingan, 1,040 ft., 1.
Remarks.—In allusion to its habit of washing its food, in captivity at least, before eating it, the Spanish speaking people often refer to this species as ositos labadores. The specimen from 10 mi. ESE Zamora is a skull without lower jaws or indication of sex. Because the racoons damage corn in the roasting ear stage the animals are disliked by the farmers, a score of whom sometimes band together in an organized hunt to kill the animals. Dogs are especially trained to hunt them. In Michoacán no use is made of the pelts.
Nasua narica molaris Merriam

Coati; Spanish, Pizote; Tarascan, Amátze (Amatz)
Nasua narica molaris Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 15:68, March 22, 1902, type from Manzanillo, Colima; Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 55:79, June 25, 1942.
Range.—Probably all but higher parts of state.
Remarks.—We have no positive record of this animal which Goldman (1942:79) writes "is widely distributed from Jalisco south through Colima, Michoacán, ... to southwestern Oaxaca."[447]In the parts of Michoacán visited by us the Spanish name tejón instead of pizote was used for this animal although in parts of México where the badger (Taxidea) occurs, tejón is, we understand, the name used for the badger.
Bassariscus astutus consitus Nelson and Goldman

Ring-tailed Cat; Spanish, Cacomixtle
Bassariscus astutus consitus Nelson and Goldman, Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., 22:487, October 19, 1932, type from La Salada, 40 mi. S Uruapan, Michoacán.
Range.—Probably greater part, or all, of state.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 100112 from 3 mi. NW Pátzcuaro, 6,700 ft.
Remarks.—La Salada and three miles northwest of Pátzcuaro are the two localities represented by actual specimens. A live animal, at night, was seen one mile east and four miles south of Tacámbaro at 4,500 feet elevation. The young female from three miles northwest of Pátzcuaro was trapped at a break in a stone fence.
Ring-tailed cats live in the stone walls, crevices and rocky ledges, around corn fields and pasture lands.
Mustela frenata leucoparia (Merriam)

Weasel; Spanish, Comadreja; Tarascan, Apásr or Apatzee (Apatz)
Putorius frenatus leucoparia Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna, 11:29, June 30, 1896, type from Pátzcuaro, Michoacán.
Mustela frenata leucoparia, Miller, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79:100, December 31, 1912.
Range.—Probably statewide.
Specimens examined, 6: in Biological Surveys Collection of U. S. Nat. Mus., nos. 120304, 125972, 34914/47179, 36855/49239, and 34915/47180; 2014 B. Villa R., I.B., distributed as follows: Zamora, 1; Los Reyes, 1; Pátzcuaro, 4.
Remarks.—This subspecies of weasel is notable for having, among American weasels of any kind, the maximum amount of white on the head. When collecting at Pátzcuaro we saw no live specimens but were shown several from there that had been recently mounted by P. Luna. He regarded the animal as not especially rare.
Spilogale angustifrons angustifrons Howell

Spotted Skunk; Spanish, Zorrillo Manchado
Spilogale angustifrons Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 15:242, December 16, 1902, type from Tlalpam, D. F.
Range.—Probably all of state except low coastal area.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 100126, 3 mi. NW Pátzcuaro, 6,700 ft.
Remarks.—The short tail of our specimen, an adult male, is noteworthy as perhaps also is the breadth between the orbits. External[448]measurements are 338, 101, 39. It weighed 308 grams. Selected cranial measurements are: Basilar length, 44.1; zygomatic breadth, 32.4; postpalatal length, 26.6; least interorbital breadth, 13.8; height of cranium, 16.0. The specimen was trapped in a hole in a stone fence. Howell (1906:23), under the name Spilogale gracilis, recorded another male from Pátzcuaro.
Mephitis macroura macroura Lichtenstein

Hooded Skunk; Spanish, Zorrillo or Mofeta Rayada; Tarascan, Cuitziqui (Kweetzeke)
Mephitis macroura Lichtenstein, Darstellung Neuer oder wenig bekannter Säugethiere pl. 46, 1832, type from mountains northwest of México City.
Specimens examined, 12: nos. 100114-100125, distributed with reference to Pátzcuaro, as follows: 3 mi. NW, 6,700 ft., 1; 2 mi. W, 7,600 and 7,000 ft., 2; 3½ mi. S, 7,900 ft., 1; 4 mi. S, 7,800 ft., 2; 5 mi. S, 7,800 ft., 5; 9 mi. SE, 8,000 ft., 1.
Remarks.—Skunk tracks were abundant in all localities around Pátzcuaro. Most of our specimens were caught in steel traps, some along the edges of cornfields, others along the highway and along the pole fences. Tarascan friends at Colonia Revolución were eager to have the bodies of the skunks which we caught. They regarded the skunks as a delicacy and told us that this food was reputed to be good for a person's blood and complexion.
Conepatus mesoleucus nelsoni Goldman

Hog-nosed Skunk; Spanish, Zorillo Real
Conepatus mesoleucus nelsoni Goldman, Jour. Mamm., 3:41, February 8, 1922, type from Armería (near Manzanillo), Colima, 200 ft. altitude.
Range.—Probably greater part, or all, of state.
Specimen examined, 1: no. 52217, Tancítaro, 6,000 ft.
Remarks.—The name C. m. nelsoni is tentatively used for the single skin, which is without skull or indication of sex.
Urocyon cinereoargenteus colimensis Goldman

Gray Fox; Spanish, Zorra Gris; Tarascan, Cúmihuátz (Cumewatz)
Urocyon cinereoargenteus colimensis Goldman, Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., 28:495, November 15, 1938, type from 3 mi. W city of Colima, 1,700 ft. elevation.
Specimens examined, 2: no. 100127, from 1 mi. E and 6 mi. S Tacámbaro, 4,000 ft., and no. 51393 from Apatzingan.
Remarks.—The female from southeast of Tacámbaro, caught on March 20, 1943, had two embryos, 28 mm. in length. This female was trapped near a small stream. Goldman (1938:497) reported 7 specimens of U. c. colimensis from the following localities in the state: La Huacana, 1; La Salada, 2; Los Reyes, 1; Mount Tancítaro, 1; Pátzcuaro, 2.
Fig. 1. Panoramic view of Lake Pátzcuaro.
Fig. 2. Stuffed skins, in dorsal view, of 6 males of Mephitis macroura macroura, all trapped within a radius of 5 miles of Pátzcuaro, to show the amount of individual variation in color-pattern. × 110.
Photo by W. C. Matthews.
Fig. 1. Ungrazed pasture with oaks on slope of El Estribo, 7,700 feet elevation, two miles west of the town of Pátzcuaro, Michoacán. Several species of rodents, Liomys, Sigmodon, and Peromyscus were taken abundantly in the grass in the immediate foreground. Photo March 16, 1943, by Mary F. Hall.
Fig. 2. Xerophitic vegetation, eleven miles west of Zamora, Michoacán. 5,750 feet elevation, where rodents were trapped. Photo March 26, 1943, by Mary F. Hall.
Canis latrans cagottis (Hamilton Smith)

Coyote; Spanish, Coyote; Tarascan, Jihuátz (Hewatz)
Lyciscus cagottis Hamilton Smith, Jardine's Naturalist's Library, Mamm., 9:164, 1839, type from Río Frío between city of México and Puebla.
Canis latrans cagottis, Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 45:224, November 26, 1932.
Range.—Probably most of state.
Remarks.—On March 27 or 28, 1943, in Morelia, at a gasoline filling station, one of us (Hall) saw a freshly killed coyote tied on the bumper of the automobile of a Medical Doctor. In response to inquiry about the animal the Doctor said that he killed it some 15 miles northeast of town.

View the rest of An Annotated Check List of the Mammals of Michoacán, México, by Bernardo Villa R. and E. Raymond Hall - Full Text

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