Tuesday, March 13, 2012

How to Analyze People on Sight, by Elsie Lincoln Benedict and Ralph Paine Benedict – Full Text (Part 2)


The Muscular Type

"The Worker"

eople in whom the muscular system is proportionately larger and more highly developed than any of their other systems are Musculars. This system consists of the muscles of the organism.

The "Lean Meat" Type

¶ The muscle-system of the human body is simply a co-ordinated, organized arrangement of layers of lean meat, of which every individual has a complete set.

An individual's muscles may be small, flabby, deficient in strength or so thin as to be almost imperceptible but they are always there—elementary in the infant, full grown in the adult and remnants in the aged. But they are so smoothly fitted together, so closely knitted and usually so[Pg 134] well covered that we seldom realize their complexity or importance.

In the pure Muscular type his muscles are firm and large. Such muscles can not be disguised but seem to stand out all over him.

Helpless Without Them

¶ Without them we would be helpless masses of fat and bone; we could not blink an eye nor lift a finger. Yet we are so accustomed to them that we rarely think of them and seldom give them credit for what they do.

Without their wonder-work to adjust the eyes we could not see; without their power the heart would cease to beat. We can not smile, sob, speak nor sing without using them. We would have no pianists, violinists, dancers, aviators, inventors or workers of any kind without them.

Everything we put together—from hooks and eyes to skyscrapers—is planned by our brains but depends for its materialization upon the muscles of the human body.

How to Know Him

¶ Look at any individual and you will note one of these three conditions: that his bones seem to be[Pg 135] covered just by skin and sinews (which means that he belongs to the fourth type) or thickly padded with fat (in which case he is largely of the first type) or well upholstered with firm meat.

In the latter case he is largely Muscular, no matter what other types may be present in his makeup.

In a short time you will be able to tell, at a glance, whether the padding on an individual is mostly fat or mostly muscle, because fat is always round and soft while muscle is firm and definite.

Physical Solidity

¶ A general solidity of structure, as distinguished from the softness of the Alimentive and the resilience of the Thoracic, characterizes the Muscular. (See Chart 5)

Poke your finger into a fat man's hand and though it makes a dent that dent puffs back quickly. Do the same to the Muscular and you will find a firmness and toughness of fiber that resists but stays there longer once the dent is made.

Not So Malleable

¶ This little illustration is typical of the differences between these two natures throughout their entirety. Just as the fat man's face gives to your touch, he will give in to you more easily than any other type; but he will go back to the same place sooner and more smoothly when your pressure is removed.

[Pg 136]

The Muscular does not mold so easily, is less suggestible, is less tractable than the Alimentive or Thoracic but is less likely to revert afterwards.

Built on the Square

¶ "On the Square" is a figurative expression usually applying to a moral tendency. In this sense it is as often possessed by one type as another. But in a purely literal sense the Muscular is actually built on the square. His whole figure is a combination of squares.

The Alimentive is built upon the circle, the Thoracic on the kite-shape but the pure Muscular always tends toward a squareness of outline.

We repeat, he is no more "square" morally than any other type, so do not make the mistake of attributing any more of this virtue to him than to others.

¶ Each type has its own weaknesses and points of strength as differentiated from other types and these are responsible for most of the moral differences between people.[Pg 138]

No Type Superior Morally

¶ Since moral weakness comes from type weakness and since each type possesses about as many weaknesses as the others, it follows that no type is superior "morally" to any other and no type is morally inferior to any other.

Type and Temptation

¶ Morality is mostly a matter of how much temptation you can withstand.

Every individual in a civilized community is surrounded by temptations of some kind most of the time. He does not want to yield to any of them. Every man and woman does the best of which his particular type is capable under a given circumstance.

Each individual resists many temptations for which we fail to give him credit. He yields only to those which make such a strong appeal to his type that he lacks the power of resistance.

In other words, each person yields to the temptations that prey upon his particular weaknesses, and what his weaknesses are will depend upon his type. In the grip of these temptations he may commit anything from discourtesy to crime[Pg 139]—according to the strength of the temptation plus his own leaning in that direction.

On the other hand, certain "immoralities" which appeal strongly to some types have no attraction whatever for others and these latter get credit for a virtuousness that has cost them nothing.

Praise and Punishment

¶ On the other hand, each one of the five human types has certain points of strength and from these gets its natural "moral" qualities. We spend a great deal of energy giving praise and blame but when we realize—as we are doing more and more—that the type of an individual is responsible for most of his acts, we will give less of both to the individual and more of both to the Creator.

Type vs. Training

¶ The most that training can do is to brace up the weak spots in us; to cultivate the strong ones; to teach us to avoid inimical environments; and to constantly remind us of the penalties we pay whenever we digress.

Child Training

¶ As this great science of Human Analysis becomes known the world will understand for the[Pg 140] first time "how the other half lives," and why it lives that way.

We will know why one child just naturally tells fibs while his twin brother, under identical training, just naturally tells the truth. What is more to the point we will know this in their childhood and be prepared to give to each the kind of training which will weed out his worst and bring out his best.

Short and Stocky

¶ The extreme Muscular type (See Chart 5) is below medium height, though one of any height may be largely muscular.

The extreme type, of which we are treating in this chapter, is shorter and heavier than the average. But his heaviness is due to muscle instead of fat. He has the appearance of standing firmly, solidly upon the ground, of being stalwart and strong.

The Square-Shouldered Man

¶ The Muscular's shoulders stand out more nearly at right angles than those of any other type and are much broader in proportion to his height. The Alimentive has sloping shoulders and the Thoracic inclines to high shoulders. But the shoul[Pg 141]ders of the pure Muscular are straighter and have a squareness where the Alimentive's have curves. This accounts for the fact that most of the square shouldered men you have known were not tall men, but medium or below medium in height. The wide square shoulders do not accompany any other pure type, though naturally they may be present in an individual who is a combination.

Has Proportionately Long Arms

¶ The arms of pure Musculars are longer in proportion to the body than the arms of other types. The arms of the Alimentive are short for his body but the extreme Muscular's arms are always anywhere from slightly longer to very much longer than his height would lead you to expect.

The Pure Muscular Head

¶ A "square head" is the first thing you think of when you look at a pure Muscular. His head has no such decided digressions from the normal as the round head of the Alimentive or the kite-shaped head of the Thoracic. It is not high for his body like the Thoracic's nor small for his body like the Alimentive's, but is of average proportions.

[Pg 142]

His Thick Neck

¶ A distinctive feature of this type is his thick neck. It is not fat like that of the Alimentive nor medium long like that of the Thoracic but has unusual muscularity and strength.

This is one of the chief indications of the Muscular's strength. A sturdy neck is one of the most significant indications of physical prowess and longevity, while the frail neck—of which we shall speak in connection with the fifth type—is always a sign of the physical frailty which endangers life. The thickness of his neck may sometimes give you the impression that the Muscular head is small but if you will look again you will see that it is normal for his bodily size.

His Square Face

¶ Looking at him from directly in front you will see that the Muscular's face gives you an impression of squareness. (See Chart 6) You will also notice that his side-head, cheeks and jaw run up and down in such a way as to give him a right-angled face.

His Square Jaw

¶ A broad jaw is another characteristic of this type. Not only is it square, looked at from the front,[Pg 144] but you are pretty sure to note that the jaw bones, as they proceed downward under the ear, tend to make a right-angled turn at the corners instead of a rounded curve.

These dimensions tend to give the whole lower part of the Muscular's face a box-like appearance. It is considered becoming to men but robs its female owners of the delicate, pointed chin so much desired by women.

The Typical Muscular Hand

¶ Notice the hands of the people you meet and you will be surprised to see how different and how interesting they are. Their size, shape and structure as seen from the back of the hand are especially significant and tell us much more about the individual's nature than the palm does.

Perhaps you have thought that a hand was just a hand. But there are hands and hands. Each pure type has its own and no other is ever seen on the extreme of that type.

The hand of the Muscular, like all the rest of his body, is built in a series of squares. It runs out from the wrist and down in a straighter line and tends to right angles. (See Chart 6)[Pg 145]

The Square Fingers of This Type

¶ "Spatulate fingers"—meaning fingers that are square or paddle-shaped at the tips—are sure indications of a decided muscular tendency.

He may have other types in combination but if his fingers are really square—"sawed off at the ends" in such a way as to give them large instead of tapering ends—that person has more than average muscularity and the activities of his life will tend in the directions referred to in this chapter.

The Manual Worker

¶ Musculars are the hand-workers of the world. They are the artisans, craftsmen, the constructors and builders.

We all tend to use most those organs or parts of the body which are largest and most highly developed. The Muscular's hand is proportionately larger than the hand of any other type. It has more muscle, that one element without which good hand work is impossible.

So it has followed inevitably that the manual work of the world is done largely by Musculars. Their hands are also so much more powerful that they do not tire easily.[Pg 146]

The Hand of the Creative Artist

¶ "The artist's hand" and "the artistic hand" are phrases long used but misused. Delicate tapering fingers were supposed in ancient times to denote artistic ability. The frail curving hand was also supposed to be a sign of artistic talent.

From the stage of old down to the movies of today the typical artist is pictured with a slight, slender hand.

This tapering-fingered hand denotes a keen sense of artistic values; a love of the esthetic, refined and beautiful; and real artistic appreciation, but not the ability to create.

The "Hand Arts"

¶ Before we explain this, kindly understand that we are speaking only of those arts which require hand work—and not of such arts as singing, dancing, or musical composition which could more properly be called artistic activities. We are referring only to those arts which depend for their creation upon the human hand—such as painting, architecture, craftsmanship, cartooning, sculpture, violin, piano, etc.

All these are created by square fingered people.[Pg 147]

We are too much inclined to think of the products of these arts as being created out of sheer artistic sense, artistic taste or artistic insight. But a moment's reflection will show that every tangible artistic creation is the result of unusual hand work combined with gifted head work. Without a sure, strong, well-knit hand the ideas of the greatest artists could never have materialized. The lack of such a hand explains why the esthetic, the artistic-minded and the connoisseur do not create the beautiful things they appreciate.

Head and Hand Partners

¶ The hand must execute what the brain plans and it must be so perfect a mechanism for this that it responds to the most elusive inspirations of the artist. It must be a fifty per cent partner, else its owner will never produce real art.

No type has this strong, sure, co-ordinated hand-machine to any such degree as the Muscular.

The finger ends, which are of the utmost significance in the creation of artistic things, must be fitted with well developed muscles of extreme efficiency or the execution will fall short of the ideal pictured in the artist's mind.[Pg 148]

The pure Muscular type seldom makes an artist, for, after all, inspired brain work is the other important element in the creation of art, and this is the forte of the fifth type. A combination of the fifth type with the Muscular makes most hand artists. A combination of the Muscular and Thoracic makes most singers. Every hand artist will be found to have spatulate-fingered hands—in short, muscular hands.

The hand of the famous craftsman, pianist, sculptor and painter, instead of being more frail and delicate, is always larger and heavier than that of the average person. Such a hand is a certain indication of the muscular element in that individual's makeup.

His Powerful Movements

¶ Forceful, decisive movements also characterize this type. He is inclined to go at even the most trivial things with as much force as if the world depended on it.

Recently we were exhibiting a small pencil sharpener to a muscular friend. It was so sharp that it performed its work without pressure. But she took hold of it as if it were a piece of artillery and pushed the pencil into it with all the force she had.[Pg 149]

When we remonstrated smilingly—for her face and hands are ultra-square—she said, "But I can't do anything lightly. I just naturally put that much force into everything."

His Forceful Walk

¶ Heavy, powerful, forceful strides distinguish the walk of this type. If he has but ten steps to go he will start off as if beginning an around-the-world marathon.

You Hear Him Coming

¶ All Musculars notify people, by their walk, of their approach. They are unconscious of this loud incisive tread, and most of them will be surprised to read it here. But their friends will recognize it. The chances are that they have often spoken of it amongst themselves.

The Loud Voice

¶ The "steam-calliope voice" belongs almost always to a Muscular. He does his talking just as he does everything else—with all his might.

It is very difficult for the Muscular to "tone down" this powerful voice. His long-suffering friends will testify to this characteristic.[Pg 150]

His Stentorian Tones

¶ This loud voice is a serious social handicap to him. His only chance of compensation for it lies in its use before juries, congregations or large audiences.

It might be noted here that every great orator has been largely of this type, and also that his fame came not alone from the things he said but from the stentorian tones in which he said them.

Famous Male Singers

¶ Caruso, John McCormack and all other famous male singers had large thoracic systems, but in every instance it was combined with a large muscular development.

The Solid Sitter

¶ When a Muscular sits down he does it as he does everything—with definiteness and force. He does not spill over as does the Alimentive nor drape himself gracefully like the Thoracic, but planks himself as though he meant business.

Activity His Keynote

¶ Because he is especially built for it the Muscular is more active than any other type. Without[Pg 151] muscles no organism could move itself from the spot in which it was born.

Biology teaches us that the stomach was the first thing evolved. The original one-call organism possessed but one function—digestion. As life progressed it became necessary to send nutriment to those parts of the organism not touched by the stomach.

For the purpose of reaching these suburbs there was involved the circulatory or Thoracic system, and this gave rise, as we have seen in the previous chapter, to the Thoracic type.

Movement and Development

¶ As time went on movement became necessary, full development not being possible to any static organism. To meet this need muscles were evolved, and organic life began to move.

It was only a wiggle at first, but that wiggle has grown till today it includes every kind of labor, globe trotting and immigration.

The Muscular is fitted with the best traveling equipment of any type and invariably lives a life whose main reactions express these things.

The Immigrant Muscular

¶ No matter what his work or play the Muscular[Pg 152] will make more moves during the course of a day than other types. He loves action because his muscles, being over-equipped for it, keep urging him from within to do things.

As a result this type makes up most of the immigrants of the world. Italians, Poles, Greeks, Russians, Germans and Jews are largely of this type and these are the races furnishing the largest number of foreigners in America.

Inertness Irks Him

¶ Shut up a Muscular and you destroy him. His big muscle system cries out for something to do. He becomes restless, nervous and ill when confined or compelled to be idle.

The Alimentive loves an easy time but the Muscular dislikes ease except when exhausted. Even then it is almost impossible to stop him.

Must Be Doing Something

¶ "I can't bear to be doing nothing!" you often hear people say. Such a person always has plenty of muscle. Musculars want to feel that they are not wasting time. They must be "up and doing," accomplishing something. If there is nothing near them that needs doing they are sure to go and find something.[Pg 153]

The Born Worker

¶ Work is second nature to this type. He really prefers it.

Everyone likes some kind of work when in the mood if it serves a purpose or an ideal. But the Muscular likes work for its own sake—or rather for the activity's sake.

Work palls on the Alimentive and monotony on the Thoracic, but leisure is what palls on the Muscular. He may have worked ten years without a vacation and he may imagine he wants a long one, but by the morning of the third day you will notice he has found a piece of work for himself. It may be nothing more than hanging the screen door, chopping the wood or dusting the furniture, but it will furnish him with some kind of activity.

Because he enjoys action for its own sake and because work is only applied action, this type makes the best worker. He can be trusted to work harder than any other type.

Require Less Watching

¶ It is no accident that the three-hundred-men gangs of foreign workmen who dig ditches, tunnels and tubes, construct buildings, railroads and[Pg 154] cities work with fewer foremen and supervisors than are ordinarily required to keep much smaller forces of other employees at their posts.

Seldom Unemployed

¶ For this reason the Muscular is seldom out of work. He is in demand at the best current wages because he can be depended upon to "keep at it."

¶ While writing this book our windows overlook a public park in one of America's one-million-population cities. Hundreds of unemployed men sleep there day and night. Having occasion to pass through this park daily for several months it has been interesting to note the types predominating. Hardly one per cent belonged to the Muscular type.

Likes To Do Things

¶ Because he is such a hard worker this type gets a good deal of praise and glory just as the fat people, who manage to get out of work, receive a good deal of blame. Yet work is almost as pleasant to the Muscular as leisure is to the Alimentive.

The Muscular's Pugnacity

¶ Fighters—those who really enjoy a scrap occasionally—are invariably Musculars. Their square[Pg 155] jaws—the sure sign of great muscularity—are famous the world over and especially so in these days when war is once more in fashion.

The next time you look at the front faces of Pershing, Haig, Hindenberg or even that of your traffic policeman, note the extremely muscular face and jaw. Combat or personal fighting is a matter of muscle-action. Being well equipped for it this type actually enjoys it. That is why he is oftener in trouble than any other type.

It was no accident that the phrase "big stick" was the slogan of an almost pure Muscular.

Loves the Strenuous Life

¶ "The strenuous life" was another of Roosevelt's pet phrases and came from the natural leanings of his type. The true Muscular is naturally strenuous. Because we are prone to advise others to do what we enjoy doing ourselves it was inevitable that so strenuous a man as T. R. should advocate wholesale, universal and almost compulsory strenuosity.

We tell others to do certain things because "it will do you good" but the real reason usually is that we like to do it ourselves.[Pg 156]

The Acrobatic Type

¶ The next time you go to a vaudeville show get there in time for the acrobatics and notice how all the participants are Musculars. If there are any other types taking part please observe that they are secondary to the acrobats—they catch the handkerchiefs or otherwise act as foils for the real performers.

All the hard work in the act will be done by Musculars. You will find no better examples of the short, stocky, well-knit pure Muscular than here. You do not need to wait for another show to realize how true this is. Recall the form and height of all the acrobats you have ever seen. You will remember that there was not one who did not fit the description of the pure Muscular given at the beginning of this chapter.

Acrobats Always Muscular

¶ We once had occasion to refer to this fact in a Human Analysis Class. One member declared that just that week he had seen a very tall, unmuscular man performing in an acrobatic act at the Orpheum.

Knowing that this was impossible, we offered a[Pg 157] large reward to this member if he were proven right. We sent to the theater and found the acrobat in question. He had just finished his act and kindly consented to come over.

He turned out to be a pure Muscular as we had stated. The class member's mistake came from the fact that the acrobat appeared taller than he really was. High platforms always give this illusion. Furthermore his partner in the act was of diminutive height and the acrobat looked tall and slender by contrast.

Why They Don't Do It

¶ To be an acrobat is the ambition of almost every boy. There have been few who did not dream, while doing those stunts in the haymow on Mother's broomstick, of the glory that should be theirs when they grew up and performed in red tights for the multitudes.

Almost every boy has this ambition because he passes through a stage of decided muscular development in his early years. But only those who were born with much larger muscles than the average ever carry out their dreams. The others soon develop girth or the "sitting still" habit to the[Pg 158] point where a cushioned seat in the first row of the parquet looks much better.

Durability in Clothes

¶ Something that will wear well is what this type asks for when he drops in to buy a suit. Musculars are not parsimonious nor stingy. Their buying the most durable in everything is not so much to save money as for the purpose of having something they do not need to be afraid to handle.

Likes Heavy Materials

¶ This type likes heavy, stable materials. Whereas the Alimentive wants comfortable clothes and the Thoracic distinctive ones the Muscular wants wearable, "everyday" clothes.

He wants the materials to be of the best but he cares less for color than the Thoracic. Quality rather than style and plainness rather than prettiness are his standards in dress.

"Making over father's pants for Johnnie" is a job Muscular women have excelled in and for which they have become famous. For this type of mother not only sees to it that father's pants are of the kind of stuff that won't wear out easily but she has the square, creative hand that enjoys construction.[Pg 159]

The Plain Dresser

¶ Simple dresses—blue serge, for instance—are the ones the Muscular woman likes. This type cares little about clothes as ornamentation. He is intent on getting his desires satisfied by DOING things, not by looking them. He also resents the time and trouble that fashionable dressing demands. No matter how much money this type has he will not be inclined to extremes in dress. Musculars are not really interested in clothes for clothes' sake. It is not that this type is unambitious. He is extremely so, but he is so concentrated on "getting things done" that he is likely to forget how he looks while doing them.

When a person of this type does take great pains with his clothes it is always for a purpose, and not because he enjoys preening himself. There is little of the peacock in the Muscular.

A Simple Soul

¶ Musculars are the most democratic of all the types. The Thoracic is a natural aristocrat, and enjoys the feeling of a little innocent superiority. But Musculars often refuse to take advantage of superior positions gained through wealth or station,[Pg 160] and are inclined to treat everybody as an equal. It is almost impossible for this type, even though he may have become or have been born a millionaire, to "lord it over" servants or subordinates. He is given to backing democratic movements of all kinds. This explains why Musculars constitute the large majority in every radical group.

Humanness His Hobby

¶ Being "human" is an ideal to which this type adheres with almost religious zeal. He likes the commonplace things and is never a follower after "the thing" though he has no prejudices against it, as the fourth type has.

An Everyday Individual

¶ The Muscular does not care for "show" and, except when essential to the success of his aims, seldom does anything for "appearances."

He is not an easy-going companion like the Alimentive nor a scintillating one like the Thoracic, but an everyday sort of person.

When in Trouble

¶ This type is not given to sliding out of difficulties like the Alimentive nor to being tempor[Pg 161]arily submerged by them like the Thoracic. He "stands up to them" and backs them down. When in trouble he acts, instead of merely thinking.

The Most Practical Type

¶ "The Practicalist" is often used to describe this type. He is inclined to look at everything from the standpoint of its practicality and is neither stingy nor extravagant.

He Likes What Works

¶ "Will it work?" is the question this type puts to everything. If it won't, though it be the most fascinating or the most diverting thing in the world, he will take little interest in it.

This type depends mostly upon his own hands and head to make his fortune for him, and is seldom lured into risking money on things he has not seen.

The Natural Efficiency Expert

¶ The shortest, surest way is the one this type likes. He is not inclined to fussiness. He insists on things being done in the most efficient way and he usually does them that way himself. He is not an easy man to work for, but quick to reward merit.[Pg 162] The Muscular does not necessarily demand money nor the things that money buys but he tries to get the workable out of life.

The Property Owner

¶ This type likes to have a fair bank account and to give his children a worth while training. He is less inclined to bedeck them with frills but he will plan years ahead for their education.

These are not rigid parents like the fourth type, lenient like the Alimentives, nor temperamental with their children like the Thoracics, but practical and very efficient in their parenthood. They are very fond of their children but do not "spoil" them as often as some of the other types do.

They bring up their children to work and teach them early in life how to do things. As a result, the children of this type become useful at an early age and usually know how to earn a living if necessary.

Wants the Necessities

¶ The necessities of life are things this type demands and gets. Whereas the Alimentive demands the comforts and the Thoracic the unusual, the Muscular demands the essentials. He is willing to work for them, so he usually succeeds.[Pg 163]

He is not given to rating frills and fripperies as necessities but demands the things everyday men or women need for everyday existence. Naturally he goes after them with the same force he displays in everything else.

His Heart and Soul in Things

¶ When some one shows great intensity of action directed toward a definite end we often say "he puts his heart and soul into it." This phrase is apropos of almost everything the Muscular does. He makes no half-hearted attempts.

An Enthusiast

¶ "Enthusiasm does all things" said Emerson, and therein explained why this type accomplishes so much. The reason back of the Muscular's enthusiasm is interesting.

All emotions powerfully affect muscles. A sad thought flits through your mind and instantly the muscles of your face droop and the corners of your mouth go down. Hundreds of similar illustrations with which you are already familiar serve to prove how close is the connection between emotions and muscles. The heart itself is nothing more nor less than a large, tough, leather-like muscle.[Pg 164]

Possessing the best equipment for expressing emotion, the Muscular is constantly and automatically using it.

Therefore he becomes an enthusiast over many things during the course of his lifetime. This enthusiasm literally burns his way to the things he wants.

The Plain Talker

¶ When deeply moved this type talks well. If the mental element is also strong he can become a good public speaker for he will then have all the qualifications—a powerful voice, human sympathy, democracy and simplicity.

In private conversation he is inclined to use the verbal hammers too much and to be too drastic in his statements, accusations, etc. But he means what he tells you, no more, and usually not much less.

He avoids long words and complicated phrases even when well educated and speaks with directness and decisiveness.


¶ "Straight from the shoulder" might be used to describe the method of the pure Muscular in what[Pg 165] he does and says. He does not deal in furbelows, dislikes the superfluous and the superficial. He goes through life over the shortest roads.

Likes the Common People

¶ Plain folks like himself are the kind this type prefers for friends. He enjoys them immensely, but does not cultivate as large a number of them as does the Thoracic, nor have as many "bowing acquaintances" as the Alimentive.

Snubs the Snobs

¶ The snob is disliked by every one but is the especial aversion of this type. Being so democratic himself and living his life along such commonplace lines, he has no patience with people who imagine they are better than others or who carry the air of superiority.

The only person therefore whom the Muscular is inclined to snub is the snob. He is not overawed by him and enjoys "taking him down a peg," whenever he tries his high and mighty airs on him.

Defends the "Under Dog"

¶ Standing by the under dog is a kind of religion with this type. He glories in fighting for the down[Pg 166]trodden. This explains why he is so often a radical. Much of this vehemence in radicalism is due to the fact that he feels he is getting even with the snobs of the world—the plutocrats—when he furthers the causes of the proletariat.

Often on the Warpath

¶ To "have it out" with you is the first inclination of this type when he becomes angry.

He is apt to say atrocious things and to exaggerate his grievances. Everything must yield to his "dander" once it is up. Being possessed of a highly developed fighting equipment, he is like a battleship, with every gun in place, most of the time.

He is frequently in violent quarrels with his friends, and since he does not recover from his anger quickly like the Thoracic, he often loses them for life.

The Most Generous Friend

¶ When they like you the Musculars are the most abandoned in their generosity of all the types. They "go the limit" for you, as the Westerner says, and they go it with their money, time, love and enthusiasm.[Pg 167]

All types do this for short periods occasionally and for a very few choice friends. But the Muscular often does it for people he scarcely knows if they strike his fancy or appeal to him.

His heart and his home belong to the stranger almost as completely as to his family, for he does not feel a stranger to any one. He feels from the first moment, and acts, as though he had known you always.

This accounts for his democracy, for his success as an orator, and—sometimes for his being "broke."

Not a Quick Forgiver

¶ But disappoint him in anything he considers vital and he does not overlook it easily. He finds it especially difficult to forgive people who take advantage of the generosity he so lavishly extends. But he does not make his hate a life-long one, as the fourth type does.

With all his own giving to others he seldom takes much from others.

The Naturally Independent

¶ "Standing on his own legs" is a well-known trait of the Muscular. Dependence is bred of necessity. This type being able to get for himself most of[Pg 168] the things he wants, rarely finds it necessary to call upon others for assistance.

Love of self-government, plus fighting pluck, both of which are inherent in the Muscular Irish race, are responsible for the long struggle for their independence.

Likes Plain Foods

¶ "Meat and potatoes" are the favorite diet of the average American Muscular. The Alimentive wants richness and sweetness in food, the Thoracic wants variety and daintiness but the Muscular wants large quantities of plain food.

The Alimentive specializes in desserts, the Thoracic in unusual dishes, but the Muscular wants solid fare. He is so fond of meat it is practically impossible for him to confine himself to a vegetable diet.

When He is in Moderate Circumstances

¶ The Muscular is most often found in moderate circumstances. He is rarely far below or far above them. Most of the plain, simple, everyday things he desires can be secured by people of average means. He does not feel the necessity for becoming a millionaire to obtain comforts like the Alimentive, nor for extravagances like the Thoracic.[Pg 169]

When He is Rich

¶ Philanthropy marks the expenditures of this type whenever he is rich. He does not spend as much of his money for possessions but enjoys investing it in what he deems the real—that is, other human beings.

The most plain and durable things in furnishings, architecture and service characterize the rich of this type in their homes.

The World's Work Done by Musculars

¶ Broadly speaking, the fat man manages the world, the florid man entertains the world, and the muscular man does the work of the world.

He composes most of the day-laborers, the middle men, the manual and mechanical toilers the world around, as we have stated before.

He could get out of his hard places into better paid ones if he did not like activity so well, but lacking the love of ease and show he is willing to work hard for the necessities of life.

Simple Habits

¶ The Muscular's nature does not demand the exciting, the gregarious or the food-and-drink things that lead toward laxity.[Pg 170]

He is seldom a dissipator. He likes to go to bed early, work hard and make practical progress in his life.

He leads the simple and yet the most strenuous existence of any type.

Entertainment He Enjoys

¶ Plays about plain people, their everyday experiences, hopes and fears are the kind that interest this type most.

The "problem play" of a decade ago was a prime favorite with him. He likes everything dealing with these everyday commonplace affairs with which he is most familiar.

He frequently goes to serious lectures—something the pure Alimentive always avoids—and he especially enjoys them if they deal with the problem of the here and now.

He cares little for comic opera, vaudeville or revues because he feels they serve no practical purpose and get him nowhere. This type does not attend the theater merely to be amused. He goes for light on his everyday experiences and usually considers time wasted that is spent solely on entertainment.[Pg 171]

Music He Likes

¶ Band music, stirring tunes and all music with "go" to it appeals to this type.


¶ True stories, news and the sport page are the favorite newspaper reading of the Muscular. He does not take to sentimental stories so much as the Alimentive, nor to adventure so much as the Thoracic but sticks to practical subjects almost exclusively.

Being active most of his waking hours, and strenuously active at that, the Muscular is often too tired at night to read anything.

His Favorite Sports

¶ The most violent sports are popular with this type. Football, baseball, handball, tennis, rowing and pugilism are his preferences. All experts in these lines are largely Muscular.

Physical Assets

¶ His wonderful muscular development, upon which depends so much of life's happiness—since accomplishment is measured so largely thereby—is the greatest physical asset of this type. With it he[Pg 172] can accomplish almost anything of which his mind can conceive.

He is capable of endless effort, does not tire easily, and because of his directness makes his work count to the utmost of his mental capacity.

Physical Liabilities

¶ A tendency to overwork is the chief physical pitfall of this type. The disease to which he is most susceptible is rheumatism. But owing to his love of activity he exercises more than any other type and thus forestalls many diseases.

Social Assets

¶ His generosity is the strongest social asset of the Muscular. He is usually straightforward and sincere and thereby gains the confidence of those who meet him.

Social Liabilities

¶ His loud voice and his plain ways are the disadvantages under which this type labors in social intercourse. He needs polishing and is not inclined to take it. His pugnacity is also a severe drawback.

Emotional Assets

¶ Understanding, enthusiasm and warmth of[Pg 173] heart are the emotional qualities which help to make him the public leader he so often is. These have made him the "born orator," the radical and the reformer of all ages.

Emotional Liabilities

¶ His tendency to anger and combat are shackles that seriously handicap him. Many times these lose him the big opportunities which his splendid traits might obtain for him.

Business Assets

¶ Efficiency and willingness to work hard and long are the greatest business assets of this type.

Business Liabilities

¶ Pugnacity over trifles costs the average Muscular many business chances. He has to fight out every issue and while he is doing it the other fellow closes the deal.

He is inclined to argue at great length. This helps him as a lawyer or speaker but it hurts him in business. Curbing his combativeness in business should be one of his chief aims.

Domestic Strength

¶ Practical protection for the future is the greatest[Pg 174] gift of the average Muscular to his family. He is not as lenient with his children as is the Alimentive nor as effusive as the Thoracic, but he usually lays by something for their future.

Domestic Weakness

¶ Cruel, angry words do the Muscular much harm in his family life. They cause his nearest and dearest to hold against him the resentments that follow.

Should Aim At

¶ Taking more frequent vacations, relaxing each day, and curbing his pugnacity should be the special aims of this type.

Should Avoid

¶ Superficial and quarrelsome people, all situations requiring pretence, and everything that confines and restricts his physical activity should be avoided by this type.

Strongest Points

¶ Democracy, industry and great physical strength are the strongest points of this type.

Weakest Points

¶ Inclination to overwork and to fight constitute the Muscular's two weakest links.[Pg 175]

How to Deal with this Type Socially

¶ Don't put on airs nor expect him to when you are meeting this type socially. Be straightforward and genuine with him if you would win him.

How to Deal with this Type in Business

¶ Remember, this type is inclined to be efficient and democratic and you had better be the same if you wish to succeed with him in business.

He is intensely resentful of the man who tries to put anything over on him; and demands efficiency. So when you promise him a thing see to it that you deliver the goods and for the price stated. He does not mind paying a good price if he knows it in the beginning, but beware of raising it afterwards. The Muscular is serious in business, not a jollier like the Alimentive, nor a thriller like the Thoracic, and he wants you to be the same.

Remember, the chief distinguishing
marks of the Muscular, in the order
of their importance, are LARGE,
person who has these is largely of the
Muscular type, no matter what other
types may be included in his makeup.


The Osseous Type

"The Stayer"

en and women in whom the Osseous or bony framework of the body is more highly developed than any other system are called the Osseous type.

This system consists of the bones of the body and makes what we call the skeleton.

Just as the previous systems were developed during man's biological evolution for purposes serving the needs of the organism—first, a stomach-sack, then a freight system in the form of arteries to carry the food to remoter parts of the body, and later muscles with which to move itself about—so this bony scaffolding was developed to hold the body upright and better enable it to defend and assert itself.

[Pg 178]

Man is a creature who, in spite of his height, walks erect. He can so do only by means of the[Pg 179] support given him by his bony framework. The human body is like a tall building—the muscles are like the mortar and plaster, the bones are like the steel framework around which everything else is built and without which the structure could not stand upright.

How to Know Him

¶ Prominent ankles, wrists, knuckles and elbows are sure signs that such an individual has a large osseous or bony element in his makeup.

When you look at any person you quickly discern whether fat, bone or muscle predominates in his construction. If fat predominates he leans toward the Alimentive, no matter what other types he may have in combination; if firm, well-defined muscles are conspicuous, he is largely Muscular; but if his bones are proportionately large for his body he has much of the Osseous type in his makeup.

The "Raw-Boned" Man

¶ "Raw-boned" exactly describes the appearance of the extreme Osseous. (See Chart 7)

Such a man is a contrast to others in any group and a figure with which all of us are familiar. But that[Pg 180] his inner nature differs as widely from others as his external appearance differs from theirs is something only recently discovered.

As we proceed through this chapter you will be interested to note how every trait attributed to this type applies with absolute accuracy to every extremely raw-boned, angular person you have ever known. You will also notice how these traits have predominated in every person whose bones were large for his body.

Though this type was the last to be classified by science it is the most extreme of them all.

Physical Rigidity

¶ An impression of physical rigidity is given by the extreme Osseous. Such a man or woman looks stable, unchanging, immovable—as though he could take a stand and keep to it through thick and thin.

So vividly do very tall, angular, raw-boned people convey this impression that they are seldom approached by beggars, barked at by street vendors, or told to "step lively."

His Size Looks Formidable

¶ The power of his physique is evident to all who look at him. The strength indicated by his large[Pg 181] joints, angular hands and general bulk intuitively warns others to let this kind of person alone.

He is therefore unmolested for the most part, whether he walks down the streets of his home town or wanders the byways of dangerous vicinities.

His Ruggedness

¶ This type also looks rugged. He reminds us of "the rugged Rockies." He appears firm, fixed, impassive—as though everything about him was permanent.

Externals are not accidental; they always correspond to the internal nature in every form of life. And it is not accidental that the Osseous looks all of these things. He is all of them as definitely as they can be expressed in human nature.

The Steady Man

¶ Of all human types the Osseous is the most dependable and reliable. The phrases, "that man is steady," "never flies off the handle," "always the same," etc., are invariably used concerning those of more than average bony structure.

Immovability His Keynote

¶ The keynote of the bony man's whole nature—mental, physical and moral—is immovability.[Pg 182]

Once he settles into a place of any kind—a town, a home, or even a chair—he is disinclined to move. He does not settle as quickly as other types but when he does it is for a longer stay.

Think how different he is from others in this psychological trait and how it coincides exactly with his physiological structure.

The fat man lets you make temporary dents in his plans just as you make them in a piece of fat meat. But the bony man is exactly the opposite, just as bone is difficult to twist, or turn, or alter in any way. It takes a long time and much effort—but once it is changed it is there for good.

The "Six-Footer"

¶ Because any individual's height is determined by his skeleton, extreme tallness is a sign of a larger than average bony structure. The extreme Osseous is therefore tall.

But you must remember that large joints are more significant than height. Even when found in short people they indicate a large osseous tendency.

Large Bones for His Body

¶ So bear in mind that any person whose bones are large for his body is somewhat of the Osseous[Pg 183] type, regardless of whether he is short or tall and regardless of how much fat or muscle he may have. The large-jointed person when fat is an Osseous-Alimentive. A large-jointed man of muscle would be an Osseous-Muscular.

The "Small Osseous"

¶ A very short person then may be predominantly Osseous if his bones are proportionately large for his body. Such an individual is called a "Small Osseous."

A head that is high for his body and inclines to be straight up and down goes with the extreme Osseous type. (See Chart 8) It does not resemble a sphere like the Alimentive, is not kite-shaped like the Thoracic, nor square like the Muscular. It is higher than any of the others, stands on a longer, more angular neck, and his "Adam's Apple" is usually in evidence.

The Pioneer Type

¶ Like each of the other types, the Osseous is a result of a certain environment. Rigorous, remote regions require just such people, and these finally gave rise to this stoical nature. The outposts of civilization are responsible for his evolution.

[Pg 184]

Pioneering, with its hardship, its menacing cold and dearth of comforts, in far countries at last produced a man who could stand them, who could "live through" almost anything and still dominate his surroundings.

Not a "Softie"

¶ The Osseous does not give way to his feelings. He keeps his griefs, sorrows, ambitions and most of his real opinions to himself. He is the farthest from a "softie" of any type.

If you desire to know at once what kind of person the Osseous is, put the Alimentive and Thoracic types together and mix them thoroughly. The Osseous is the opposite of that mixture.

Each and every trait he possesses is one whose exact opposite you will find in one or the other of these first two types.

Consistency in Types

¶ As we go on in this chapter you will see why all kinds of people make up the world, for Nature has outdone herself in the distinctions between the five human types.

Each type is made up of certain groups of traits with which we have come in contact all our lives[Pg 186] but which we have never classified; and each "set" of traits comprising a type has a consistency which nothing less than Mother Nature could have produced. You will be interested to see how accurate are the statements concerning each type and how they are proven again and again in every type you associate with.

Guesswork is no longer necessary in the sizing up of strangers. You can know them better than their mothers know them if you will get these nutshells of facts clearly in your mind and then apply them.

His High Cheek Bones

¶ Cheek bones standing higher than the average are always indicative either of a large Thoracic or a large Osseous element.

If the distance between the cheeks is so wide as to make this the widest section of the face, it is probable that the person is more Thoracic than Osseous. But if his face is narrow across the cheek bones, and especially if it runs perpendicularly down to the jaw-corners from that point instead of tapering, the person is large of the Osseous type.

Built on the Oblong

¶ An oblong is what the Osseous brings to mind.[Pg 187] His body outlines approximate the oblong—a squareness plus length. He is full of right angles and sharp corners. (See Chart 7)

His face is built on the oblong (See Chart 8) and if you will notice the side-head of the next Osseous man you meet you will see that even a side view presents more nearly the appearance of the oblong than of any other geometrical figure.

The Oblong Hand

¶ "The gnarled hand" well describes that of the Osseous. The hand outlines of this type also approximate the oblong. (See Chart 8) It runs straight down instead of tapering when the fingers are held close together.

The hand of the Osseous matches his body, head and face. It is bony, angular, large-jointed and as rigid as it looks. The inflexibility of his hand is always apparent in his handshake.

Knotty Fingers

¶ Knotty fingers characterize the hands of this type. Their irregular appearance comes from the size of the joints which are large, in keeping with all the joints running throughout his organism.

Everything in one of Nature's creatures matches[Pg 188] the other parts. Agassiz, the great naturalist, when given the scale of a fish could reconstruct for you the complete organism of the type of fish from which it came. Give a tree-leaf to a botanist and he will reconstruct the size, shape, structure and color of the tree back of it. He will describe to you its native environment and its functions; what its bark, blossoms and branches look like and what to do to make it grow.

No Guesswork in Nature

¶ Nature has no accidents. With her everything is organized, everything has a purpose, and every part of a thing, inside and out, matches the whole. So the hand of the Osseous and the face of the Osseous match the body and head.

This is also true of every other type. The Alimentive has small, fat, dimpled hands and feet like his body; the Thoracic has tapering hands and feet to match his face and body; the Muscular's body, hands and feet are all square; but the Osseous has a bony body, so his hands and feet are equally bony.

The Man of Slow Movements

¶ "He is too slow for me," you have heard some one say of another. Perhaps you heard it said today.[Pg 189] Review the outward appearance of all the people you know who have this reputation, from those of your earliest childhood down to that person of whom it was spoken today—and you will find that every one of them resembled the bony type we have just been describing.

Look back and call to mind the appearance of all the "rapid" ones and you will find that in every case they possessed high color, high chests or high-bridged noses. Take another look for the easy-going amenable ones, and see how plump they all were!

The Straight-Laced

¶ None of these things "just happened." They are the result of the law of cause and effect. The connection between external and internal traits is becoming clearer every day and reveals some very unexpected things.

One that has been discovered very recently is that the straight-faced are the straight-laced. Notice for yourself and you will find that every person who is really "straight-laced" is a person with a straight face—that is, a face with straighter up-and-down lines than the average.

Think back over those you have known who come[Pg 190] under this heading and you will find no actually round-faced people amongst them.

No matter how sanctimonious, religious or correct a person may act when his position or the occasion demands it, if he has a round, "moon" face he is not really straight-laced at heart. Any one who knows him well enough to know his real nature will tell you so.

The Naturally Conventional

¶ The "born Puritan," the ascetic, and the naturally conventional person is, on the other hand, invariably an individual of more severe facial outlines.

This person may be in an unconventional position; your straight-faced, severe-lined person may be a gambler, a boot-legger, or follow any other line defying the conventions; but he is at heart a conservative after all. For instance, you will always find, when you know him, that he does things in a way that is very conventional to him. That is, he has decided standards, rules, habits and requirements, and he clings rigidly to them in the transaction of his business, regardless of how lax the business itself may be.[Pg 191]

"A certain way of doing things" means as much to him, at heart, as it means little to the circular-faced people.

Systematic and Methodical

¶ "A place for everything and everything in its place" is a rule preached and practised by people of this type.

The Osseous person does not mislay his things. He knows so well where they are that he can "go straight to them in the dark." Such a man is careful of his tools and keeps his work-bench or desk "shipshape." A woman of this type is an excellent housekeeper. Her sewing basket, dresser drawers and pantry shelves are all systematically arranged in apple-pie order.

The typical New England housewife, who washes on Mondays, irons on Tuesdays and bakes on Saturdays for forty years, is a direct descendant of the Puritans, most of whom belong to this bony, pioneering type.

The Stiff Sitter

¶ Extremely Osseous people are inclined to be somewhat formal in their movements. They make fewer motions than any other type. They do not[Pg 192] wave their hands or arms about when talking and are almost devoid of gesticulation of any kind. They sit upright instead of slumping down in their chairs, except when tall and lanky, and usually prefer "straight-backs" to rockers.

The Osseous Walk

¶ The extremely raw-boned person has also a formal gait. His walk, like all his other movements, is inclined to be deliberate and somewhat mechanical.

¶ Nothing about the five types is more interesting than the walk which distinguishes each. The Alimentive undulates or rolls along; the Thoracic is an impulsive walker, and the Muscular is forceful in his walk. But the Osseous walks mechanically, deliberately, and refuses to hurry or speed up.

The Naturally Poised

¶ The Osseous has more natural poise than any other type.

He is not impressionable, excitable or arousable. Things do not "stir him up" as they do other people. He is more self-contained, self-controlled and self-sufficient than any other. He is not easily carried off his feet and seldom yields to impulse. It is difficult to get him to do anything on the spur[Pg 193] of the moment. He usually has his evenings, Sundays and vacations all planned in advance and won't change his schedule.

Not Given to "Nerves"

¶ Literally as well as figuratively the Osseous is not a man of "nerves." Every fiber of his being is less susceptible to outside stimuli than that of other types. In this he is the exact opposite of the Thoracic whose nerves, as we have pointed out, are so finely organized that he is hypersensitive.

Resists Change

¶ Osseous people do not change anything, from their hair dress to their minds, any oftener than necessary. When they do, it is for what they consider overpoweringly good reasons.

These people are not flighty. They have their work, their time and their lives laid out systematically and do not allow trivialities to upset them. They take a longer time to deliberate on a proposed line of action, but once they have made a decision, adhere to it with much greater tenacity than any other type.

The Constant

¶ People of this type are not fickle nor flirtatious.[Pg 194] They love few; but once having become enamored are not easily turned aside. It is this type that remains true to one love through many years, sometimes for life.

The Implacable

¶ The Osseous are not prone to sudden outbursts of temper. But they have the unbending kind when it is aroused.

Never forgiving and never forgetting is a trait of these people as contrasted with the Thoracic.

The Alimentive avoids those he does not like and forgets them because it is too much bother to hate; the Thoracic flames up one moment and forgives the next; the Muscular takes it out in a fight then and there, or argues with you about it.

But the Osseous despises, hates and loathes—and keeps on for years after every one else has forgotten all about it. The "rock-bound Puritan" type, as stony as the New England land from which it gets its living, is always bony. The implacable father who turns his child away from home, with orders "never to darken his door again," always has a lot of bone in his structure. Those who refuse to be softened into forgiveness by the years are always of this type.[Pg 195]

Not Adaptable

¶ It is difficult for the Osseous to "fit in." He is not adaptable and in this is once again the opposite of the Thoracic. It is impossible for him to adjust himself quickly to people or places.

Because he is unyielding, unbending and unadjustable he is called "sot in his ways."

He should not be misjudged for this inadaptability, however, for it is as natural to him as smoothness is to the Alimentive and impulsiveness to the Thoracic. He is made that way and is no more to blame for it than you are for having brown eyes instead of blue.

The One-Track Man

¶ "Single-track minds" are characteristic of this type. They get an idea or an attitude and it is there to stay. They think the same things for many years and follow a few definite lines of action most of their lives.

But it is to be remembered in this connection that this type often accomplishes more through his intensive concentration than more versatile types. While they follow many by-paths in search of their goal the Osseous sticks to the main track.[Pg 196]

The Born Specialist

¶ "This one thing I do," is a motto of the Osseous. They are the least versatile of any type and do not like to jump from one kind of work to another.

They prefer to do one thing at a time, do it well and finish it before starting anything else. Because of this the Osseous stars in specialities.

Dislikes Many Irons in the Fire

¶ The man who likes many irons in the fire is never an Osseous. To have more than one problem before him at one time makes him irritable, upset and exasperated.

The Most Dependable Type

¶ The unchangingness which handicaps the Osseous in so many ways is responsible for one very admirable trait. That trait is dependability.

The Osseous is reliable. He can be taken at his word more often than any other type, for he lives up to it with greater care.

Always on Time

¶ When an Osseous person says, "I will meet you at four o'clock at the corner of Main and[Pg 197] Market," he will arrive at Main and Market at four o'clock. He will not come straggling along, nor plead interruptions, nor give excuses. He will be on the exact spot at the exact hour.

In this he is again a contrast to the first two types. An Alimentive man will roll into the offing at a quarter, or more likely, a half hour past the time, smilingly apologize and be so naive you forgive and let it go at that.

The Thoracic will arrive anywhere from five after four to six o'clock, drown you in a thrilling narrative of just how it all happened, and never give you a chance to voice your anger till he has smoothed it all out of you.

An Exacting Man

¶ But the Osseous is disdainful of such tactics and you had better beware of using them on him. He is dependable himself and demands it of others—a little trait all of us have regarding our own particular virtues.

Likes Responsibility

¶ Responsibility, if it does not entail too many different kinds of thought and work, is enjoyed by the Osseous.[Pg 198]

He can be given a task, a job, a position and he will attend to it. Entrust him with a commission of any kind, from getting you a certain kind of thread to discovering the North Pole, and he will come pretty near carrying it out, if he undertakes it.

Finishes What He Starts

If an Osseous decides to do a piece of work for you you can go ahead and forget all about it. No need to advise, urge, watch, inspire, coax and cajole him to keep him at it. He prefers to keep at a thing if he starts it himself. You may have to hurry him but you will not have to watch him in order to know he is sticking to his task. This type starts few things but he brings those few to a pretty successful conclusion.

The Martyr of the Ages

¶ "Died for a cause" has been said of many people, but those people have in every known instance been possessed of a larger-than-average bony structure.

¶ The pure Alimentive seldom troubles his head about causes. The Thoracic is the type that lives chiefly for the pleasure of the moment and the adventures of life. The Muscular fights hard and works hard for various movements.[Pg 199]

But it is the Osseous who dies for his beliefs.

It is the Osseous or one who is largely of this type who languishes in prison through long years, refusing to retract.

He is enabled to do this because the ostracism, jibes and criticism with which other types are finally cowed, have little effect upon him. On the contrary, opposition of any kind whets his determination and makes him keep on harder than ever.

Takes the Opposite Side

¶ "If you want him to do a thing, tell him to do the opposite," is a well-known rule supposed to work with certain kinds of people.

You have wondered why it sometimes worked and sometimes didn't, but it is no mystery to the student of Human Analysis.

When it worked, the person you tried it on was an Osseous or one largely osseous in type; and when it didn't he was of some other type.

"Contrary?" complained a man of a bony neighbor recently, "Contrary is his middle name."

"I am open to conviction but I would like to see the man who could convince me!" is always said by a man whose type you will be sure to recognize.[Pg 200]

An "Againster"

¶ "I don't know what it is but I'm against it," is the inside mental attitude of the extremely raw-boned, angular man or woman.

They often, unconsciously, refrain from making a decision about a thing till the other fellow makes his. That settles it; they take the other side.

Think back over your school-days and call to mind the visage and bodily shape of the boy who was always on the opposite side, who just naturally disagreed, who "stood out" against the others. He was a bony lad every time.

Remember the "Fatty" with a face like a full moon? Did he do such things? He did not. He was amenable, easy-going, good natured, and didn't care how the discussion came out, so long as it didn't delay the lunch hour.

Remember the boy or girl who had the pick of the school for company whenever there was a party, who danced well and was so sparkling that you always felt like a pebble competing against a diamond when they were around? That boy or girl had a high chest, or high color, or a high-bridged nose—and usually all three.

But the one you couldn't persuade, who couldn't[Pg 201] be won over, who refused to give in, who held up all the unanimous votes till everybody was disgusted with him, and who rather gloried in the distinction—that boy had big bones and a square jaw—the proof that he was a combination of the Osseous and Muscular types.

The Human Balance Wheel

¶ To keep the rest of the world from running away with itself, to prevent precipitous changes in laws, customs and traditions, has always been one of the functions performed for society by the bony people.

These people are seldom over-persuaded, and being able to retain a perpendicular position while the rest of the world is being swayed this way and that, they act as society's balance wheel.

The Osseous changes after a while, but it is a long while, and by the time he does, the rest of the world has marched on to something new which he opposes in its turn.

Wears Same Style Ten Years

¶ Even the clothes worn by this type tell the same story. Styles may come and styles may go, but the Osseous goes on forever wearing the same[Pg 202] lines and the same general fashions he wore ten years before. If you will recall the men who continued wearing loose, roomy suits long after the "skin-tight" fashions came in, or the women who kept to long, full skirts when short ones were the vogue you will note that every one of them had large joints or long faces.

Bony people find a kind of collar or hat that just suits, and to that hat and that collar they will stick for twenty years!

Disdains the Fashions

¶ In every city, neighborhood and country crossroads there is always somebody who defies the styles of today by wearing the styles of ten years ago.

Every such person is a bony individual—never under any circumstances a moon-faced, round-bodied one. In every case you will find that his face is longer, his nose is longer, or his jaw and hands are longer than the average—all Osseous indications.

When He is Rich

¶ The bony man's adherence to one style or to one garment is not primarily because he wishes to save money, though saving money is an item that[Pg 203] he never overlooks. It is due rather to his inability to change anything about himself in accordance with outside influence until a long time has elapsed.

Doesn't Spend Money Lavishly

¶ The Osseous is, as stated at the head of this chapter, a "stayer" and this applies to everything he wears, thinks, says, believes, and to the way he carries on every activity of his life.

No matter how rich he may be he will not buy one kind of car today and another tomorrow, nor one house this week and another in six weeks.

He uses his money, as all of us do, to maintain his type-habits and to give freer rein to them, not to change them to any extent. This type likes sameness. He likes to "get acquainted" with a thing. He never takes up fads and is the most conservative of all types. Unlike the Thoracic, he avoids extremes in everything and dislikes anything savoring of the "showy" or conspicuous.

Not a Social Star

¶ Because he dislikes display, refuses to yield to the new fangled fashions of polite society and finds it hard to adapt himself to people, the man of this type is seldom a social success.[Pg 204]

He is the least of a "ladies' man" of all the types. The Osseous woman is even less disposed to social life than the Osseous man because the business and professional demands, which compel men of this type to mingle with their fellows, are less urgent with her.

Likes the Same Food

¶ The same "yesterday, today and forever" is the kind of food preferred by this type. He seldom orders anything new. The tried and true things he has eaten for twenty-five years are his favorites and it is almost impossible to win him away from them. "I have had bread and milk for supper every Sunday night for thirty years," a bony man said to us not long ago.

Means What He Says

¶ The Osseous does not flatter and seldom praises. Even when he would like to, the words do not come easily. But when he does give you a compliment you may know he means it. He is incisive and specific—a little too much so to grace modern social intercourse where so much is froth.

A Man of Few Words

¶ A man of few words is always and invariably a[Pg 205] man whose bones are large for his body. The fat man uses up a great many pleasant, suave, merry, harmless words; the Thoracic inundates you with conversation; the Muscular argues, declares and states; but the Osseous alone is sparing of his words.

The Hoarder

¶ Bony people are never lavish with anything. They do not waste anything nor throw anything away. These are the people who save things and store them away for years against the day when they may find some use for them. When they do part with them it is always to pass them on "where they will do some one some good."

Careful of Money

¶ You never saw a stingy fat man in your life. Imagine a two-hundred-pound miser! Neither have you ever seen a really stingy man who was red-faced and high-chested. Nor have you ever found a real Muscular who was a "tightwad."

But you have known some people who were pretty close with their money. And every one of them was inclined to boniness.

When He is Poor

¶ Bony men are seldom "broke" for they are[Pg 206] more careful of expenditures than any other type. Even when they receive small salaries this type of person always has something laid by. But the extreme Osseous never makes a million. The same caution which prevents his spending much money also prevents the plunges that make big money.

¶ The Osseous cares more for money than any one else. This is what has enabled him, when combined with some other type, to be so successful in banking—a business where you risk the other man's money, not your own.

The extreme Osseous is never lax or extravagant with his money no matter how much he has. He never believes in paying any more for a thing than is necessary. Take note of the men who carry purses for silver instead of letting their change lie loose in their pockets. They are bony every time! Fat people and florid people are the ones who let their greenbacks fall on the floor while paying the cashier!

Fear of the Future

¶ "The rainy day" doesn't worry the fat people or the florid ones, but it is seldom out of the consciousness of the bony men and women. So they cling to their twenty-dollar-a-week clerkships for[Pg 207] years because they are afraid to tackle anything entailing risk.

Pays His Bills

¶ "I had rather trust a bony man than any other kind," is what the credit experts have told us. "Other things being equal, he is the most reliable type in money matters, and pays his bills more promptly."

¶ The bony man is one who seldom approaches the credit man, however. He usually has enough to get the few things he really wants and if not he waits till he has.

Extremely bony husbands give their wives smaller allowances in proportion to their total income than any other type, and because they are systematic themselves they are more likely to ask for reports and itemizations as to where it goes.

The fat husbands and the florid husbands are the ones who give their wives their last cent and never ask what becomes of it.

The Repressed Man

¶ The Osseous man or woman is always somewhat repressed. Unlike the Thoracic, who uncorks and bubbles like a champagne bottle, he keeps the lid on his feelings.[Pg 208]

Bony people are always more reticent than others. They invariably tell less of their private or personal affairs. One may live across the hall from a bony man for years without knowing much about him. He is as secretive as the Thoracic is confiding and as guarded as the Alimentive is naive.

Loyal to His Few Friends

¶ "Once your friend always your friend" can be said about the Osseous oftener than any other type.

¶ The Osseous does not make friends easily and is not a "mixer" but keeps his friends for many years. He "takes to" very few people but is exceedingly loyal to those of his choice.

The "Salt of the Earth"

¶ People of the Osseous type say little, they do little for you and they do not gush—but they are always there when you need them and "always the same." They write few letters to you when away, and use few words and little paper when they do. They are likely to fill every page, to write neatly, to waste no margins and to avoid flourishes. Their letters seldom require an extra stamp.

Plans Ahead

Foresight, laying plans far into the future, and[Pg 209] keeping an eye out for breakers ahead, financially and otherwise, are tendencies which come natural to the Osseous.

He does not like to wait until the last moment to do a thing. He dislikes unexpectedness and emergencies of any kind. He is always prepared. For instance a bony person will think out every move of a long journey before boarding his train. Weeks in advance he will have the schedule marked and put away in his coat pocket—and he knows just which coat he is going to wear too!

The Longest Lived

¶ The Osseous lives longer than any other type, for two reasons. The first is that his lack of "nerves" saves him from running down his batteries. He seldom becomes excited and does not exhaust himself in emotional orgies.

The second is that he habitually under-eats—usually because he does not care so much for food as the first three types, but quite often because he prefers to save the money.

People He Dislikes

¶ The bony man does not like people who try to speed him up, hurry him, or make him change[Pg 210] his habits. Flashy people irritate him. But his worst aversions are the people who try to dictate to him. This type can not be driven. The only way to handle him is to let him think he is having his own way.

Likes the Submissive

¶ Amenable people who never interfere with him yet lend themselves to his plans, desires and eccentricities are the favorites of this type.

Diseases He is Most Susceptible To

¶ No diseases can be said to strike the Osseous more frequently than any other type.

But moodiness, fear—especially financial fear—long-sustained hatreds and resentments, and lack of change are indirectly responsible for those diseases which bring about the end, in the majority of cases.

Music He Likes

¶ Martial, classical music and ballads are favorites with the Osseous. Old-time tunes and songs appeal to him strongly.

Jazz, which the Alimentive loves, is disliked by most bony people.

Reading He Prefers

¶ Only a few kinds of reading, a few favorite[Pg 211] subjects and a few favorite authors are indulged in by this type.

He will read as long as twenty-five years on one subject, master it and ignore practically everything else. When he becomes enamored of an author he reads everything he writes.

Reading that points directly to some particular thing he is really interested in makes up many of his books and magazines.

He is the kind of man who reads the same newspaper for half a century.

Physical Assets

¶ His great endurance, capacity for withstanding hardship, indifference to weather, and his sane, under-eating habits are the chief physical assets of this type.

Physical Liabilities

¶ This type has no physical characteristics which can be called liabilities except the tendency to chronic diseases. Even in this he runs true to form—slow to acquire and slow to cure.

His Favorite Sports

¶ Hiking and golf are the favorite sports of this[Pg 212] type because these demand no sudden spurts of energy. He likes them because they can be carried on with deliberation and independence. He does not care for any sport involving team work or quick responses to other players. Except when combined with the Thoracic type he especially avoids tennis.

Favorite Entertainments

¶ Serious plays in which his favorite actors appear are the entertainments preferred by this type. He cares least of all for vaudeville.

Social Assets

¶ The Osseous has no traits which can properly be called social assets. His general uprightness comes nearest to standing him in good stead socially, however.

Social Liabilities

¶ Stiffness, reticence, physical awkwardness and the inability to pose or to praise are the chief social handicaps of this type.

Emotional Assets

¶ The Osseous is not emotional and can not be said to possess any assets that are purely emotional.[Pg 213]

Emotional Liabilities

¶ The lack of emotional fervor and enthusiasm prevents this type from impressing others.

Business Assets

¶ Keeping his word, orderliness and system are the chief business assets of this type.

Business Liabilities

¶ A disinclination to mix, the inability to adapt himself to his patrons and a tendency to hold people too rigidly to account are the business handicaps of the Osseous.

Domestic Strength

¶ Constancy and faithfulness are his chief domestic assets.

Domestic Weaknesses

¶ Tightness with money, a tendency to be too exacting and dictatorial, and to fail to show affection are the things that frequently prevent marriage for the Osseous and endanger it when he does marry.

Should Aim At

¶ The Osseous should aim at being more adjustable to people and to his environment in general.[Pg 214] He should try to take a greater interest in others and then show it.

Should Avoid

¶ Indifference and the display of it, solitude and too few interests are things the Osseous needs to avoid.

His Strong Points

¶ Dependability, honesty, economy, faithfulness and his capacity for finishing what he starts are the strongest points of this type.

His Weakest Points

¶ Stubbornness, obstinacy, slowness, over-cautiousness, coldness and a tendency to stinginess are the weakest links in people of the extreme Osseous type.

How to Deal with this Type Socially

¶ There is little to be done with the Osseous when you meet him socially except to let him do what he wants to do.

Don't interfere with him if you want him to like you.

How to Deal with this Type in Business

¶ As an employee, give him responsibility and then let him alone to do it his way.[Pg 215]

Then keep your hands off.

Don't give him constant advice; don't try to drive him.

Let him be as systematic as he likes.

When dealing with him in other business ways rely on him and let him know you admire his dependability.

Remember, the distinguishing marks
of the Osseous, in the order of their
importance, are PROPORTION
A LONG FACE. Any person who
has these is largely of the Osseous
type no matter what other types
may be included in his makeup.

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