PROLEGOMENA AND GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING
Clavis Sigillorum and Index of Manuscripts.—The author's intention to publish his MSS. (1).—The preparation of the MSS. for publication (2).—Admonition to readers (3).—The disorder in the MSS. (4).—Suggestions for the arrangement of MSS. treating of particular subjects (5—8).—General introductions to the book on painting (9—13).—The plan of the book on painting (14—17).—The use of the book on painting (18).—Necessity of theoretical knowledge (19, 20).—The function of the eye (21—23).—Variability of the eye (24).—Focus of sight (25).—Differences of perception by one eye and by both eyes (26—29).—The comparative size of the image depends on the amount of light (30—39).
General remarks on perspective (40—41).—The elements of perspective:—of the point (42—46).—Of the line (47—48).—The nature of the outline (49).—Definition of perspective (50).—The perception of the object depends on the direction of the eye (51).—Experimental proof of the existence of the pyramid of sight (52—55).—The relations of the distance point to the vanishing point (55—56).—How to measure the pyramid of vision (57).—The production of the pyramid of vision (58—64).—Proof by experiment (65—66).—General conclusions (67).—That the contrary is impossible (68).—A parallel case (69).—The function of the eye, as explained by the camera obscura (70—71).—The practice of perspective (72—73).—Refraction of the rays falling upon the eye (74—75).—The inversion of the images (76).—The intersection of the rays (77—82).—Demonstration of perspective by means of a vertical glass plane (83—85.)—The angle of sight varies with the distance (86—88).—Opposite pyramids in juxtaposition (89).—On simple and complex perspective (90).—The proper distance of objects from the eye (91—92).—The relative size of objects with regard to their distance from the eye (93—98).—The apparent size of objects denned by calculation (99—106).—On natural perspective (107—109).
SIX BOOKS ON LIGHT AND SHADE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION.—Prolegomena (110).—Scheme of the books on light and shade (111).—Different principles and plans of treatment (112—116).—Different sorts of light (117—118).—Definition of the nature of shadows (119—122).—Of the various kinds of shadows (123—125).—Of the various kinds of light (126—127).—General remarks (128—129).—FIRST BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.—On the nature of light (130—131).—The difference between light and lustre (132—135).—The relations of luminous to illuminated bodies (136).—Experiments on the relation of light and shadow within a room (137—140).—Light and shadow with regard to the position of the eye (141—145).—The law of the incidence of light (146—147).—SECOND BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.—Gradations of strength in the shadows (148—149).—On the intensity of shadows as dependent on the distance from the light (150—152).—On the proportion of light and shadow (153—157).—THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.—Definition of derived shadow (158—159).—Different sorts of derived shadows (160—162).—On the relation of derived and primary shadow (163—165).—On the shape of derived shadows (166—174).—On the relative intensity of derived shadows (175—179).—Shadow as produced by two lights of different size (180—181).—The effect of light at different distances (182).—Further complications in the derived shadows (183—187).—FOURTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.—On the shape of cast shadows (188—191).—On the outlines of cast shadows (192—195).—On the relative size of cast shadows (196. 197).—Effects on cast shadows by the tone of the back ground (198).—A disputed proposition (199).—On the relative depth of cast shadows (200—202).—FIFTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.—Principles of reflection (203. 204).—On reverberation (205).—Reflection on water (206. 207).—Experiments with the mirror (208—210).—Appendix:—On shadows in movement (211—212).—SIXTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.—The effect of rays passing through holes (213. 214).—On gradation of shadows (215. 216).—On relative proportion of light and shadows (216—221).
PERSPECTIVE OF DISAPPEARANCE
Definition (222. 223).—An illustration by experiment (224).—A guiding rule (225).—-An experiment (226).—On indistinctness at short distances (227—231).—On indistinctness at great distances (232—234).—The importance of light and shade in the Prospettiva de' perdimenti (235—239).—The effect of light or dark backgrounds on the apparent size of objects (240—250).—Propositions on Prospettiva de' perdimenti from MS. C. (250—262).
THEORY OF COLOURS
The reciprocal effects of colours on objects placed opposite each other (263—271).—Combination of different colours in cast shadows (272).—The effect of colours in the camera obscura (273. 274).—On the colours of derived shadows (275. 276).—On the nature of colours (277. 278).—On gradations in the depth of colours (279. 280).—On the reflection of colours (281—283).—On the use of dark and light colours in painting (284—286).—On the colours of the rainbow (287—288).
PERSPECTIVE OF COLOUR AND AERIAL PERSPECTIVE
General rules (289—291).—An exceptional case (292).—An experiment (293).—The practice of the Prospettiva de' colori (294).—The rules of aerial perspective (295—297).—On the relative density of the atmosphere (298—299).—On the colour of the atmosphere (300—307).
ON THE PROPORTIONS AND ON THE MOVEMENTS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE
Preliminary observations (308. 309).—Proportions of the head and face (310—318).—Proportions of the head seen in front (319—321).—Proportions of the foot (322—323).—Relative proportions of the hand and foot (324).—Relative proportions of the foot and of the face (325—327).—Proportions of the leg (328—331).—On the central point of the whole body (332).—The relative proportions of the torso and of the whole figure (333).—The relative proportions of the head and of the torso (334).—The relative proportions of the torso and of the leg (335. 336).—The relative proportions of the torso and of the foot (337).—The proportions of the whole figure (338—341).—The torso from the front and back (342).—Vitruvius' scheme of proportions (343).—The arm and head (344).—Proportions of the arm (345—349).—The movement of the arm (350—354).—The movement of the torso (355—361).—The proportions vary at different ages (362—367).—The movement of the human figure (368—375).—Of walking up and down (375—379).—On the human body in action (380—388).—On hair falling down in curls (389).—On draperies
BOTANY FOR PAINTERS, AND ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPE PAINTING
Classification of trees (393).—The relative thickness of the branches to the trunk (394—396).—The law of proportion in the growth of the branches (397—402).—The direction of growth (403—407).—The forms of trees (408—411).—The insertion of the leaves (412—419).—Light on branches and leaves (420—422).—The proportions of light and shade in a leaf (423—426).—Of the transparency of leaves (427—429).—The gradations of shade and colour in leaves (430—434).—A classification of trees according to their colours (435).—The proportions of light and shade in trees (436—440).—The distribution of light and shade with reference to the position of the spectator (441—443).—The effects of morning light (444—448).—The effects of midday light (449).—The appearance of trees in the distance (450—451).—The cast shadow of trees (452. 453).—Light and shade on groups of trees (454—457).—On the treatment of light for landscapes (458—464).—On the treatment of light for views of towns (465—469).—The effect of wind on trees (470—473).—Light and shade on clouds (474—477).—On images reflected in water (478).—Of rainbows and rain (479. 480).—Of flower seeds (481).
THE PRACTICE OF PAINTING
I. MORAL PRECEPTS FOR THE STUDENT OF PAINTING.—How to ascertain the dispositions for an artistic career (482).—The course of instruction for an artist (483—485).—The study of the antique (486. 487).—The necessity of anatomical knowledge (488. 489).—How to acquire practice (490).—Industry and thoroughness the first conditions (491—493.)—The artist's private life and choice of company (493. 494).—The distribution of time for studying (495—497).—On the productive power of minor artists (498—501).—A caution against one-sided study (502).—How to acquire universality (503—506).—Useful games and exercises (507. 508).—II. THE ARTIST'S STUDIO.—INSTRUMENTS AND HELPS FOR THE APPLICATION OF PERSPECTIVE.—ON JUDGING OF A PICTURE.—On the size of the studio (509).—On the construction of windows (510—512).—On the best light for painting (513—520).—On various helps in preparing a picture (521—530).—On the management of works (531. 532).—On the limitations of painting (533—535).—On the choice of a position (536. 537).—The apparent size of figures in a picture (538. 539).—The right position of the artist, when painting and of the spectator (540—547).—III. THE PRACTICAL METHODS OF LIGHT AND SHADE AND AERIAL PERSPECTIVE.—Gradations of light and shade (548).—On the choice of light for a picture (549—554).—The distribution of light and shade (555—559).—The juxtaposition of light and shade (560. 561).—On the lighting of the background (562—565).—On the lighting of white objects (566).—The methods of aerial perspective (567—570).—IV. OF PORTRAIT AND FIGURE PAINTING.—Of sketching figures and portraits (571. 572).—The position of the head (573).—Of the light on the face (574—576).—General suggestions for historical pictures (577—581).—How to represent the differences of age and sex (582. 583).—Of representing the emotions (584).—Of representing imaginary animals (585).—The selection of forms (586—591).—How to pose figures (592).—Of appropriate gestures (593—600).—V. SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITIONS.—Of painting battle-pieces (601—603).—Of depicting night-scenes (604).—Of depicting a tempest (605. 606).—Of representing the deluge (607—609).—Of depicting natural phenomena (610. 611).—VI. THE ARTIST'S MATERIALS.—Of chalk and paper (612—617).—On the preparation and use of colours (618—627).—Of preparing the panel (628).—The preparation of oils (629—634).—On varnishes (635—637).—On chemical _materials (638—650).—VII. PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.—The relation of art and nature (651. 652).—Painting is superior to poetry (653. 654).—Painting is superior to sculpture (655. 656).—Aphorisms (657—659).—On the history of painting (660. 661).—The painter's scope (662).
STUDIES AND SKETCHES FOR PICTURES AND DECORATIONS
On pictures of the Madonna (663).—Bernardo di Bandino's portrait (664).—Notes on the Last Supper (665—668).—On the battle of Anghiari (669).—Allegorical representations referring to the duke of Milan (670—673).—Allegorical representations (674—678).—Arrangement of a picture (679).—List of drawings (680).—Mottoes and Emblems (681—702).
The author's intention to publish his MSS.
How by a certain machine many may stay some time under water. And how and wherefore I do not describe my method of remaining under water and how long I can remain without eating. And I do not publish nor divulge these, by reason of the evil nature of men, who would use them for assassinations at the bottom of the sea by destroying ships, and sinking them, together with the men in them. Nevertheless I will impart others, which are not dangerous because the mouth of the tube through which you breathe is above the water, supported on air sacks or cork.
[Footnote: The leaf on which this passage is written, is headed with the words Casi 39, and most of these cases begin with the word 'Come', like the two here given, which are the 26th and 27th. 7.Sughero. In the Codex Antlanticus 377a; 1170a there is a sketch, drawn with the pen, representing a man with a tube in his mouth, and at the farther end of the tube a disk. By the tube the word 'Channa' is written, and by the disk the word 'sughero'.]
The preparation of the MSS. for publication.
When you put together the science of the motions of water, remember to include under each proposition its application and use, in order that this science may not be useless.—
[Footnote: A comparatively small portion of Leonardo's notes on water-power was published at Bologna in 1828, under the title: "Del moto e misura dell'Acqua, di L. da Vinci".]
Admonition to readers.
Let no man who is not a Mathematician read the elements of my work.
The disorder in the MSS.
Begun at Florence, in the house of Piero di Braccio Martelli, on the 22nd day of March 1508. And this is to be a collection without order, taken from many papers which I have copied here, hoping to arrange them later each in its place, according to the subjects of which they may treat. But I believe that before I am at the end of this [task] I shall have to repeat the same things several times; for which, O reader! do not blame me, for the subjects are many and memory cannot retain them [all] and say: 'I will not write this because I wrote it before.' And if I wished to avoid falling into this fault, it would be necessary in every case when I wanted to copy [a passage] that, not to repeat myself, I should read over all that had gone before; and all the more since the intervals are long between one time of writing and the next.
[Footnote: 1. In the history of Florence in the early part of the XVIth century Piero di Braccio Martelli is frequently mentioned asCommissario della Signoria. He was famous for his learning and at his death left four books on Mathematics ready for the press; comp. LITTA, Famiglie celebri Italiane, Famiglia Martelli di Firenze.—In the Official Catalogue of MSS. in the Brit. Mus., New Series Vol. I., where this passage is printed, Barto has been wrongly given for Braccio.
2. addi 22 di marzo 1508. The Christian era was computed in Florence at that time from the Incarnation (Lady day, March 25th). Hence this should be 1509 by our reckoning.
3. racolto tratto di molte carte le quali io ho qui copiate. We must suppose that Leonardo means that he has copied out his own MSS. and not those of others. The first thirteen leaves of the MS. in the Brit. Mus. are a fair copy of some notes on physics.]
Suggestions for the arrangement of MSS treating of particular subjects.(5-8).
Of digging a canal. Put this in the Book of useful inventions and in proving them bring forward the propositions already proved. And this is the proper order; since if you wished to show the usefulness of any plan you would be obliged again to devise new machines to prove its utility and thus would confuse the order of the forty Books and also the order of the diagrams; that is to say you would have to mix up practice with theory, which would produce a confused and incoherent work.
I am not to blame for putting forward, in the course of my work on science, any general rule derived from a previous conclusion.
The Book of the science of Mechanics must precede the Book of useful inventions.—Have your books on anatomy bound! [Footnote: 4. The numerous notes on anatomy written on loose leaves and now in the Royal collection at Windsor can best be classified in four Books, corresponding to the different character and size of the paper. When Leonardo speaks of 'li tua libri di notomia', he probably means the MSS. which still exist; if this hypothesis is correct the present condition of these leaves might seem to prove that he only carried out his purpose with one of the Books on anatomy. A borrowed book on Anatomy is mentioned in F.O.]
The order of your book must proceed on this plan: first simple beams, then (those) supported from below, then suspended in part, then wholly [suspended]. Then beams as supporting other weights [Footnote: 4. Leonardo's notes on Mechanics are extraordinarily numerous; but, for the reasons assigned in my introduction, they have not been included in the present work.].
General introductions to the book on Painting (9-13).
Seeing that I can find no subject specially useful or pleasing—since the men who have come before me have taken for their own every useful or necessary theme—I must do like one who, being poor, comes last to the fair, and can find no other way of providing himself than by taking all the things already seen by other buyers, and not taken but refused by reason of their lesser value. I, then, will load my humble pack with this despised and rejected merchandise, the refuse of so many buyers; and will go about to distribute it, not indeed in great cities, but in the poorer towns, taking such a price as the wares I offer may be worth. [Footnote: It need hardly be pointed out that there is in this 'Proemio' a covert irony. In the second and third prefaces, Leonardo characterises his rivals and opponents more closely. His protest is directed against Neo-latinism as professed by most of the humanists of his time; its futility is now no longer questioned.]
I know that many will call this useless work [Footnote: 3. questa essere opera inutile. By opera we must here understand libro di pittura and particularly the treatise on Perspective.]; and they will be those of whom Demetrius [Footnote: 4. Demetrio. "With regard to the passage attributed to Demetrius", Dr. H. MÜLLER STRÜBING writes, "I know not what to make of it. It is certainly not Demetrius Phalereus that is meant and it can hardly be Demetrius Poliorcetes. Who then can it be—for the name is a very common one? It may be a clerical error for Demades and the maxim is quite in the spirit of his writings I have not however been able to find any corresponding passage either in the 'Fragments' (C. MULLER, Orat. Att., II. 441) nor in the Supplements collected by DIETZ (Rhein. Mus., vol. 29, p. 108)."
The same passage occurs as a simple Memorandum in the MS. Tr. 57, apparently as a note for this 'Proemio' thus affording some data as to the time where these introductions were written.] declared that he took no more account of the wind that came out their mouth in words, than of that they expelled from their lower parts: men who desire nothing but material riches and are absolutely devoid of that of wisdom, which is the food and the only true riches of the mind. For so much more worthy as the soul is than the body, so much more noble are the possessions of the soul than those of the body. And often, when I see one of these men take this work in his hand, I wonder that he does not put it to his nose, like a monkey, or ask me if it is something good to eat.
[Footnote: In the original, the Proemio dì prospettiva cioè dell'uffitio dell'occhio (see No. 21) stands between this and the preceding one, No. 9.]
I am fully concious that, not being a literary man, certain presumptuous persons will think that they may reasonably blame me; alleging that I am not a man of letters. Foolish folks! do they not know that I might retort as Marius did to the Roman Patricians [Footnote 21: Come Mario disse ai patriti Romani. "I am unable to find the words here attributed by Leonardo to Marius, either in Plutarch's Life of Marius or in the Apophthegmata (Moralia, p.202). Nor do they occur in the writings of Valerius Maximus (who frequently mentions Marius) nor in Velleius Paterculus (II, 11 to 43), Dio Cassius, Aulus Gellius, or Macrobius. Professor E. MENDELSON of Dorpat, the editor of Herodian, assures me that no such passage is the found in that author" (communication from Dr. MULLER STRUBING). Leonardo evidently meant to allude to some well known incident in Roman history and the mention of Marius is the result probably of some confusion. We may perhaps read, for Marius, Menenius Agrippa, though in that case it is true we must alter Patriti to Plebei. The change is a serious one. but it would render the passage perfectly clear.] by saying: That they, who deck themselves out in the labours of others will not allow me my own. They will say that I, having no literary skill, cannot properly express that which I desire to treat of [Footnote 26: le mie cose…. che d'altra parola. This can hardly be reconciled with Mons. RAVAISSON'S estimate of L. da Vinci's learning. "Leonard de Vinci etait un admirateur et un disciple des anciens, aussi bien dans l'art que dans la science et il tenait a passer pour tel meme aux yeux de la posterite." _Gaz. des Beaux arts. Oct. 1877.]; but they do not know that my subjects are to be dealt with by experience rather than by words [Footnote 28: See Footnote 26]; and [experience] has been the mistress of those who wrote well. And so, as mistress, I will cite her in all cases.
Though I may not, like them, be able to quote other authors, I shall rely on that which is much greater and more worthy:—on experience, the mistress of their Masters. They go about puffed up and pompous, dressed and decorated with [the fruits], not of their own labours, but of those of others. And they will not allow me my own. They will scorn me as an inventor; but how much more might they—who are not inventors but vaunters and declaimers of the works of others—be blamed.
And those men who are inventors and interpreters between Nature and Man, as compared with boasters and declaimers of the works of others, must be regarded and not otherwise esteemed than as the object in front of a mirror, when compared with its image seen in the mirror. For the first is something in itself, and the other nothingness.—Folks little indebted to Nature, since it is only by chance that they wear the human form and without it I might class them with the herds of beasts.
Many will think they may reasonably blame me by alleging that my proofs are opposed to the authority of certain men held in the highest reverence by their inexperienced judgments; not considering that my works are the issue of pure and simple experience, who is the one true mistress. These rules are sufficient to enable you to know the true from the false—and this aids men to look only for things that are possible and with due moderation—and not to wrap yourself in ignorance, a thing which can have no good result, so that in despair you would give yourself up to melancholy.
Among all the studies of natural causes and reasons Light chiefly delights the beholder; and among the great features of Mathematics the certainty of its demonstrations is what preeminently (tends to) elevate the mind of the investigator. Perspective, therefore, must be preferred to all the discourses and systems of human learning. In this branch [of science] the beam of light is explained on those methods of demonstration which form the glory not so much of Mathematics as of Physics and are graced with the flowers of both [Footnote: 5. Such of Leonardo's notes on Optics or on Perspective as bear exclusively on Mathematics or Physics could not be included in the arrangement of the libro di pittura which is here presented to the reader. They are however but few.]. But its axioms being laid down at great length, I shall abridge them to a conclusive brevity, arranging them on the method both of their natural order and of mathematical demonstration; sometimes by deduction of the effects from the causes, and sometimes arguing the causes from the effects; adding also to my own conclusions some which, though not included in them, may nevertheless be inferred from them. Thus, if the Lord—who is the light of all things—vouchsafe to enlighten me, I will treat of Light; wherefore I will divide the present work into 3 Parts [Footnote: 10. In the middle ages—for instance, by ROGER BACON, by VITELLONE, with whose works Leonardo was certainly familiar, and by all the writers of the Renaissance Perspective and Optics were not regarded as distinct sciences. Perspective, indeed, is in its widest application the science of seeing. Although to Leonardo the two sciences were clearly separate, it is not so as to their names; thus we find axioms in Optics under the heading Perspective. According to this arrangement of the materials for the theoretical portion of thelibro di pittura propositions in Perspective and in Optics stand side by side or occur alternately. Although this particular chapter deals only with Optics, it is not improbable that the words partirò la presente opera in 3 parti may refer to the same division into three sections which is spoken of in chapters 14 to 17.].
The plan of the book on Painting (14—17).
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