Saturday, March 24, 2012

The Project Gutenberg Gutenberg Encyclopedia, Vol 1, by Project Gutenberg - Full Text

The Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia
A. This letter of ours corresponds to the first symbol in the Phoenician alphabet and in almost all its descendants. In Phoenician, a, like the symbols for e and for o, did not represent a vowel, but a breathing; the vowels originally were not represented by any symbol. When the alphabet was adopted by the Greeks it was not very well fitted to represent the sounds of their language. The breathings which were not required in Greek were accordingly employed to represent some of the vowel sounds, other vowels, like i and u, being represented by an adaptation of the symbols for the semi-vowels y and w. The Phoenician name, which must have corresponded closely to the Hebrew Aleph, was taken over by the Greeks in the form Alpha (alpsa). The earliest authority for this, as for the names of the other Greek letters, is the grammatical drama (grammatike Ieoria) of Callias, an earlier contemporary of Euripides, from whose works four trimeters, containing the names of all the Greek letters, are preserved in Athenaeus x. 453 d.
The form of the letter has varied considerably. In the earliest of the Phoenician, Aramaic and Greek inscriptions (the oldest Phoenician dating about 1000 B.C., the oldest Aramaic from the 8th, and the oldest Greek from the 8th or 7th century B.C.) A rests upon its side thus—@. In the Greek alphabet of later times it generally resembles the modern capital letter, but many local varieties can be distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle at which the cross line is set— @, &c. From the Greeks of the west the alphabet was borrowed by the Romans and from them has passed to the other nations of western Europe. In the earliest Latin inscriptions, such as the inscription found in the excavation of the Roman Forum in 1899, or that on a golden fibula found at Praeneste in 1886 (see ALPHABET). Fine letters are still identical in form with those of the western Greeks. Latin develops early various forms, which are comparatively rare in Greek, as @, or unknown, as @. Except possibly Faliscan, the other dialects of Italy did not borrow their alphabet directly from the western Greeks as the Romans did, but received it at second hand through the Etruscans. In Oscan, where the writing of early inscriptions is no less careful than in Latin, the A takes the form @, to which the nearest parallels are found in north Greece (Boeotia, Locris and Thessaly, and there only sporadically) .
In Greek the symbol was used for both the long and the short sound, as in English father (a) and German Ratte a; English, except in dialects, has no sound corresponding precisely to the Greek short a, which, so far as can be ascertained, was a mid-back-wide sound, according to the terminology of H. Sweet (Primer of Phonetics, p. 107). Throughout the history of Greek the short sound remained practically unchanged. On the other hand, the long sound of a in the Attic and Ionic dialects passed into an open e-sound, which in the Ionic alphabet was represented by the same symbol as the original e-sound (see ALPHABET: Greek). The vowel sounds vary from language to language, and the a symbol has, in consequence, to represent in many cases sounds which are not identical with the Greek a whether long or short, and also to represent several different vowel sounds in the same language. Thus the New English Dictionary distinguishes about twelve separate vowel sounds, which are represented by a in English. In general it may be said that the chief changes which affect the a-sound in different languages arise from (1) rounding, (2) fronting, i.e. changing from a sound produced far back in the mouth to a sound produced farther forward. The rounding is often produced by combination with rounded consonants (as in English was, wall, &c.), the rounding of the preceding consonant being continued into the formation of the vowel sound. Rounding has also been produced by a following l-sound, as in the English fall, small, bald, &c. (see Sweet's History of English Sounds, 2nd ed., sec. sec. 906, 784). The effect of fronting is seen in the Ionic and Attic dialects of Greek, where the original name of the Medes, Madoi, with a in the first syllable (which survives in Cyprian Greek as Madoi), is changed into Medoi (Medoi), with an open e-sound instead of the earlier a. In the later history of Greek this sound is steadily narrowed till it becomes identical with i (as in English seed). The first part of the process has been almost repeated by literary English, a (ah) passing into e (eh), though in present-day pronunciation the sound has developed further into a diphthongal ei except before r, as in hare (Sweet, op. cit. sec. 783).
In English a represents unaccented forms of several words, e.g. an (one), of, have, he, and or various prefixes the history of which is given in detail in the New English Dictionary (Oxford, 1888), vol. i. p. 4. (P. GI.)
As a symbol the letter is used in various connexions and for various technical purposes, e.g. for a note in music, for the first of the seven dominical letters (this use is derived from its being the first of the litterae nundinales at Rome), and generally as a sign of priority.
In Logic, the letter A is used as a symbol for the universal affirmative proposition in the general form ``all x is y.'' The letters I, E and O are used respectively for the particular affirmative ``some x is y,'' the universal negative ``no x is y,'' and the particular negative ``some x is not y.'' The use of these letters is generally derived from the vowels of the two Latin verbs AffIrmo (or AIo), ``I assert,'' and nEgO, ``I deny.'' The use of the symbols dates from the 13th century, though some authorities trace their origin to the Greek logicians. A is also used largely in abbreviations (q.v.).
In Shipping, A1 is a symbol used to dennote quality of construction and material. In the various shipping registers ships are classed and given a rating after an official examination, and assigned a classification mark, which appears in addition to other particulars in those registers after the name of the ship. See SHIPBUILDING. It is popularly used to indicate the highest degree of excellence.
AA, the name of a large number of small European rivers. The word is derived from the Old German aha, cognate to the Latin aqua, water (cf. Ger.-ach; Scand. a, aa, pronounced o). The following are the more important streams of this name:—Two rivers in the west of Russia, both falling into the Gulf of Riga, near Riga, which is situated between them; a river in the north of France, falling into the sea below Gravelines, and navigable as far as St Omer; and a river of Switzerland, in the cantons of Lucerne and Aargau, which carries the waters of Lakes Baldegger and Hallwiler into the Aar. In Germany there are the Westphalian Aa, rising in the Teutoburger Wald, and joining the Werre at Herford, the Munster Aa, a tributary of the Ems, and others.
AAGESEN, ANDREW (1826-1879), Danish jurist, was educated for the law at Kristianshavn and Copenhagen, and interrupted his studies in 1848 to take part in the first Schleswig war, in which he served as the leader of a reserve battalion. In 1855 he became professor of jurisprudence at the university of Copenhagen. In 1870 he was appointed a member of the commission for drawing up a maritime and commercial code, and the navigation law of 1882 is mainly his work. In 1879 he was elected a member of the Landsthing; but it is as a teacher at the university that he won his reputation. Among his numerous juridical works may be mentioned: Bidrag til Laeren om Overdragelse af Ejendomsret, Bemaerkinger om Rettigheder over Ting (Copenhagen, 1866, 1871-1872); Fortegnelse over Retssamlinger, Retslitteratur i Danmark, Norge, Sverige (Copenhagen, 1876). Aagesen was Hall's successor as lecturer on Roman law at the university, and in this department his researches were epoch-making. All his pupils were profoundly impressed by his exhaustive examination of the sources, his energetic demonstration of his subject and his stringent search after truth. His noble, imposing, and yet most amiable personality won for him, moreover, universal affection and respect.
See C. F. Bricka, Dansk. Brog. Lex. vol. i. (Copenhagen, 1887); Szmlade
Skrifter, edited by F. C. Bornemann (Copenhagen, 1863). (R. N. B.)
AAL, also known as A'L, ACH, or AICH, the Hindustani names for the Morinda tinctoria and Morinda citrifalia, plants extensively cultivated in India on account of the reddish dye-stuff which their roots contain. The name is also applied to the dye, but the common trade name is Suranji. Its properties are due to the presence of a glucoside known as Morindin, which is compounded from glucose and probably a trioxy-methyl-anthraquinone.
AALBORG, a city and seaport of Denmark, the seat of a bishop, and chief town of the amt (county) of its name, on the south bank of the Limfjord, which connects the North Sea and the Cattegat. Pop. (1901) 31,457. The situation is typical of the north of Jutland. To the west the Linifjord broadens into an irregular lake, with low, marshy shores and many islands. North-west is the Store Vildmose, a swamp where the mirage is seen in summer. South-east lies the similar Lille Vildmose. A railway connects Aalborg with Hjorring, Frederikshavn and Skagen to the north, and with Aarhus and the lines from Germany to the south. The harbour is good and safe, though difficult of access. Aalborg is a growing industrial and commercial centre, exporting grain and fish. An old castle and some picturesque houses of the 17th century remain. The Budolphi church dates mostly from the middle of the 18th century, while the Frue church was partially burnt in 1894, but the foundation of both is of the 14th century or earlier. There are also an ancient hospital and a museum of art and antiquities. On the north side of the fjord is Norre Sundby, connected with Aalborg by a pontoon and also by an iron railway bridge, one of the finest engineering works in the kingdom. Aabborgt received town privileges in 1342 and the bishopric dates from 1554.
AALEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, pleasantly situated on the Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Alps, about 50 m. E. of Stuttgart, and with direct railway communication with Ulm and Cannstatt. Pop. 10,000. Woollen and linen goods are manufactured, and there are ribbon looms and tanneries in the town, and large iron works in the neighbourhood. There are several schools and churches, and a statue of the poet Christian Schubart. Aalen was a free imperial city from 1360 to 1802, when it was annexed to Wurttemberg.
AALESUND, a seaport of Norway, in Romsdal amt (county), 145 m. N. by E. from Bergen. Pop. (1900) 11,672. It occupies two of the outer islands of the west coast, Aspo and Norvo, which enclose the picturesque harbour. Founded in 1824, it is the principal shipping-place of Sondmore district, and one of the chief stations of the herring fishery. Aalesund is adjacent to the Jorund and Geiranger fjords, frequented by tourists. From Oje at the head of Jorund a driving-route strikes south to the Nordfjord, and from Merck on Geiranger another strikes inland to Otta, on the railway to Liilehammer and Christiania. Aalesund is a port of call for steamers between Bergen, Hull, Newcastle and Hamburg, and Trondhjem. A little to the south of the town are the ruins of the reputed castle of Rollo, the founder, in the 9th century, of the dynasty of the dukes of Normandy. On the 23rd of January 1904, Aalesund was the scene of one of the most terrible of the many conflagrations to which Norwegian towns, built largely of wood, have been subject. Practically the whole town was destroyed, a gale aiding the flames, and the population had to leave the place in the night at the notice of a few minutes. Hardly any lives were lost, but the sufferings of the people were so terrible that assistance was sent from all parts of the kingdom, and by the German government, while the British government also offered it.
AALI, MEHEMET, Pasha (1815-1871), Turkish statesman, was born at Constantinople in 1815, the son of a government official. Entering the diplomatic service of his country soon after reaching manhood, he became successively secretary of the Embassy in Vienna, minister in London, and foreign minister under Reshid Pasha. In 1852 he was promoted to the post of grand vizier, but after a short time retired into private life. During the Crimean War he was recalled in order to take the portfolio of foreign affairs for a second time under Reshid Pasha, and in this capacity took part in 1855 in the conference of Vienna. Again becoming in that year grand vizier, an office he filled no less than five times, he represented Turkey at the congress of Paris in 1856. In 1867 he was appointed regent of Turkey during the sultan's visit to the Paris Exhibition. Aali Pasha was one of the most zealous advocates of the introduction of Western reforms under the sultans Abdul Mejid and Abdul Aziz. A scholar and a linguist, he was a match for the diplomats of the Christian powers, against whom he successfully defended the interests of his country. He died at Erenkeni in Asia Minor on the 6th of September 1871.
AAR, or AARE, the most considerable river which both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. Its total length (including all bends) from its source to its junction with the Rhine is about 181 m., during which distance it descends 5135 ft., while its drainage area is 6804 sq. m. It rises in the great Aar glaciers, in the canton of Bern, and W. of the Grimsel Pass. It runs E. to the Grimsel Hospice, and then N.W. through the Hasli valley, forming on the way the magnificent waterfall of the Handegg (151 ft.), past Guttannen, and pierces the limestone barrier of the Kirchet by a grand gorge, before reaching Meiringen, situated in a plain. A little beyond, near Brienz, the river expands into the lake of Brienz, where it becomes navigable. Near the west end of that lake it receives its first important affluent, the Lutschine (left), and then runs across the swampy plain of the Bodoli, between Interlaken (left) and Unterseen (right), before again expanding in order to form the Lake of Thun. Near the west end of that lake it receives on the left the Kander, which has just before been joined by the Simme; on flowing out of the lake it passes Thun, and then circles the lofty bluff on which the town of Bern is built. It soon changes its north-westerly for a due westerly direction, but after receiving the Saane or Sarine (left) turns N. till near Aarberg its stream is diverted W. by the Hagneck Canal into the Lake of Bienne, from the upper end of which it issues through the Nidau Canal and then runs E. to Buren. Henceforth its course is N.E. for a long distance, past Soleure (below which the Grosse Emme flows in on the right), Aarburg (where it is joined by the Wigger, right), Olten, Aarau, near which is the junction with the Suhr on the right, and Wildegg, where the Hallwiler Aa falls in on the right. A short way beyond, below Brugg, it receives first the Reuss (right), and very shortly afterwards the Limmat or Linth (right). It now turns due N., and soon becomes itself an affluent of the Rhine (left), which it surpasses in volume when they unite at Coblenz, opposite Waldshut. (W. A. B. C.)
AARAU, the capital of the Swiss canton of Aargau. In 1900 it had 7831 inhabitants, mostly German-speaking, and mainly Protestants. It is situated in the valley of the Aar, on the right bank of that river, and at the southern foot of the range of the Jura. It is about 50 m. by rail N.E. of Bern, and 31 m. N.W. of Zurich. It is a well-built modern town, with no remarkable features about it. In the Industrial Museum there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed 1841—-the monks are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in Tirol). The cantonal library contains many works relating to Swiss history and many MSS. coming from the suppressed Argovian monasteries. There are many industries in the town, especially silk-ribbon weaving, foundries, and factories for the manufacture of cutlery and scientific instruments. The popular novelist and historian, Heinrich Zschokke (1771-1848), spent most of his life here, and a bronze statue has been erected to his memory. Aarau is an important military centre. The slopes of the Jura are covered with vineyards. Aarau, an ancient fortress, was taken by the Bernese in 1415, and in 1798 became for a time the capital of the Helvetic republic. Eight miles by rail N.E. are the famous sulphur baths of Schinznach, just above which is the ruined castle of Habsburg, the original home of that great historical house. (W. A. B. C.)
AARD-VARK (meaning ``earth pig''), the Iyutch name for the mammals of genus Orycteropus, confined to Africa (see EDEN-TATAI. Several species have been named. Among them is the typical form, O. capensis, or Cape ant-bear from South Africa, and the northern aard-vark (O. aethiopicus) of north-eastern Africa, extending into Egypt. In form these animals are somewhat pig-like; the body is stout, with arched back; the limbs are short and stout, armed with strong, blunt claws; the ears disproportionately long; and the tail very thick at the base and tapering gradually. The greatly elongated head is set on a short thick neck, and at the extremity of the snout is a disk in which the nostrils open. The mouth is small and tubular, furnished with a long extensile tongue. The measurements of a female taken in the flesh, were head and body 4 ft., tail 17 1/2 in.; but a large individual measured 6 ft. 8 in. over all. In colour the Cape aard-vark is pale sandy or yellow, the hair being scanty and allowing the skin to show; the northern aard-vark has a still thinner coat, and is further distinguished by the shorter tail and longer head and ears. These animals are of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and generally to be found near ant-hills. The strong claws make a hole in the side of the ant-hill, and the insects are collected on the extensile tongue. Aard-varks are hunted for their skins; but the flesh is valued for food, and often salted and smoked.
AARD-WOLF (earth-wolf), a South and East African carnivorous mammal (Proteles cristatus), in general appearance like a small striped hyena, but with a more pointed muzzle, sharpe ears, and a long erectile mane down the middle line of the neck and back. It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites.
AARGAU (Fr. Argovie), one of the more northerly Swiss cantons, comprising the lower course of the river Aar (q.v.), whence its name. Its total area is 541.9 sq. m., of which 517.9 sq. m. are classed as ``productive'' (forests covering 172 sq. m. and vineyards 8.2 sq. m.). It is one of the leastmountainous Swiss cantons, forming part of a great table-land, to the north of the Alps and the east of the Jura, above which rise low hills. The surface of the country is beautifully diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded hills alternating with fertile valleys watered mainly by the Aar and its tributaries. It contains the famous hot sulphur springs of Baden (q.v.) and Schinznach, while at Rheinfelden there are very extensive saline springs. Just below Brugg the Reuss and the Limmat join the Aar, while around Brugg are the ruined castle of Habsburg, the old convent of Konigsfelden (with fine painted medieval glass) and the remains of the Roman settlement of Vindonissa [Windisch]. The total population in 1900 was 206,498, almost exclusively German-speaking, but numbering 114,176 Protestants to 91,039 Romanists and 990 Jews. The capital of the canton is Aarau (q.v.), while other important towns are Baden (q.v.), Zofingen (4591 inhabitants), Reinach (3668 inhabitants), Rheinfelden (3349 inhabitants), Wohlen (3274 inhabitants), and Lenzburg (2588 inhabitants). Aargau is an industrious and prosperous canton, straw-plaiting, tobacco-growing, silk-ribbon weaving, and salmon-fishing in the Rhine being among the chief industries. As this region was, up to 1415, the centre of the Habsburg power, we find here many historical old castles (e.g. Habsburg, Lenzburg, Wildegg), and former monasteries (e.g. Wettingen, Muri), founded by that family, but suppressed in 1841, this act of violence being one of the main causes of the civil war called the ``Sonderbund War,'' in 1847 in Switzerland. The cantonal constitution dates mainly from 1885, but since 1904 the election of the executive council of five members is made by a direct vote of the people. The legislature consists of members elected in the proportion of one to every 1100 inhabitants. The ``obligatory referendum'' exists in the case of all laws, while 5000 citizens have the right of ``initiative'' in proposing bills or alterations in the cantonal constitution. The canton sends 10 members to the federal Nationalrat, being one for every 20,000, while the two Standerate are (since 1904) elected by a direct vote of the people. The canton is divided into eleven administrative districts, and contains 241 communes.
1415 the Aargau region was taken from the Habsburgs by the Swiss Confederates. Bern kept the south-west portion (Zofingen, Aarburg, Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brugg), but some districts, named the Freie Amter or ``free bailiwicks'' (Mellingen, Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten), with the county of Baden, were ruled as ``subject lands'' by all or certain of the Confederates. In 1798 the Bernese bit became the canton of Aargau of the Helvetic Republic, the remainder forming the canton of Baden. In 1803, the two halves (plus the Frick glen, ceded in 1802 by Austria to the Helvetic Republic) were united under the name of Kanton Aargau, which was then admitted a full member of the reconstituted Confederation.
See also Argovia (published by the Cantonal Historical Society), Aarau, from 1860; F. X. Bronner, Der Kanton Aargau, 2 vols., St Gall and Bern, 1844; H. Lehmann, Die argauische Strohindustrie, Aarau, 1896; W. Merz, Die mittelalt. Burganlagen und Wehrbauten d. Kant. Argau (fine illustrated work on castles), Aarau, 2 vols., 1904—1906; W. Merz and F. E. Welti, Die Rechtsquellen d. Kant. Argau, 3 vols., Aarau, 1898—1905; J. Muller, Der Aargau, 2 vols., Zurich, 1870; E. L. Rochholz, Aargauer Weisthumer, Atarau, 1877; E. Zschokke, Geschichte des Aargaus, Aarau, 1903. (W. A. B. C.)
AARHUS, a seaport and bishop's see of Denmark, on the east coast of Jutland, of which it is the principal port; the second largest town in the kingdom, and capital of the amt (county) of Aarhus. Pop. (1901) 51,814. The district is low-lying, fertile and well wooded. The town is the junction of railways from all parts of the country. The harbour is good and safe, and agricultural produce is exported, while coal and iron are among the chief imports. The cathedral of the 13th century (extensively restored) is the largest church in Denmark. There is a museum of art and antiquities. To the south-west (13 m. by rail), a picturesque region extends west from the railway junction of Skanderborg, including several lakes, through which flows the Gudenaa, the largest river in Jutland, and rising ground exceeding 500 ft. in the Himmelbjerg. The railway traverses this pleasant district of moorland and wood to Silkeborg, a modern town having one of the most attractive situations in the kingdom. The bishopric of Aarhus dates at least from 951.
AARON, the traditional founder and head of the Jewish priesthood, who, in company with Moses, led the Israelites out of Egypt (see EXODUS; MOSES) . The greater part of his life-history is preserved in late Biblical narratives, which carry back existing conditions and beliefs to the time of the Exodus, and find a precedent for contemporary hierarchical institutions in the events of that period. Although Aaron was said to have been sent by Yahweh (Jehovah) to meet Moses at the ``mount of God'' (Horeb, Ex.iv.27),he plays only a secondary part in the incidents at Pharaoh's court. After the ``exodus'' from Egypt a striking account is given of the vision of the God of Israel vouchsafed to him and to his sons Nadab and Abihu on the same holy mount (Ex. xxiv. 1 seq. 9-11), and together with Hur he was at the side of Moses when the latter, by means of his wonder-working rod, enabled Joshua to defeat the Amalekites (xvii. 8-16). Hur and Aaron were left in charge of the Israelites when Moses and Joshua ascended the mount to receive the Tables of the Law (xxiv. 12-15), and when the people, in dismay at the prolonged absence of their leader, demanded a god, it was at the instigation of Aaron that the golden calf was made (see CALF, GOLDEN). This was regarded as an act of apostasy which, according to one tradition, led to the consecration of the Levites, and almost cost Aaron his life (cp. Deut. ix. 20). The incident paves the way for the account of the preparation of the new tables of stone which contain a series of laws quite distinct from the Decalogue (q.v.) (Ex. xxxiii. seq.). Kadesh, and not Sinai or Horeb, appears to have been originally the scene of these incidents (Deut. xxxiii. 8 seq. compared with Ex. xxxii. 26 sqq.), and it was for some obscure offence at this place that both Aaron and Moses were prohibited from entering the Promised Land (Num. xx.). In what way they had not ``sanctified'' (an allusion in the Hebrew to Kadesh ``holy'') Yahweh is quite uncertain, and it would appear that it was for a similar offence that the sons of Aaron mentioned above also met their death (Lev. x. 3; cp. Num. xx. 12, Deut. xxxii. 51). Aaron is said to have died at Moserah (Deut. x. 6), or at Mt. Hor; the latter is an unidentified site on the border of Edom (Num. xx. 23, xxxiii. 37; for Moserah see ib. 30-31), and consequently not in the neighbourhood of Petra, which has been the traditional scene from the time of Josephus (Ant. iv. 4. 7).
Several difficulties in the present Biblical text appear to have arisen from the attempt of later tradition to find a place for Aaron in certain incidents. In the account of the contention between Moses and his sister Miriam (Num. xii.), Aaron occupies only a secondary position, and it is very doubtful whether he was originally mentioned in the older surviving narratives. It is at least remarkable that he is only thrice mentioned in Deuteronomy (ix. 20, x. 6, xxxii. 50). The post-exilic narratives give him a greater share in the plagues of Egypt, represent him as high-priest, and confirm his position by the miraculous budding of his rod alone of all the rods of the other tribes (Num. xvii.; for parallels see Gray comm. ad loc., p. 217). The latter story illustrates the growth of the older exodus-tradition along with the development of priestly ritual: the old account of Korah's revolt against the authority of Moses has been expanded, and now describes (a) the divine prerogatives of the Levites in general, and (b) the confirmation of the superior privileges of the Aaronites against the rest of the Levites, a development which can scarcely be earlier than the time of Ezekiel (xliv. 15 seq.).
Aaron's son Eleazar was buried in an Ephraimite locality known after the grandson as the ``hill of Phinehas'' (Josh. xxiv. 33). Little historical information has been preserved of either. The name Phinehas (apparently of Egyptian origin) is better known as that of a son of Eli, a member of the priesthood of Shiloh, and Eleazar is only another form of Eliezer the son of Moses, to whose kin Eli is said to have belonged. The close relation between Aaronite and Levitical names and those of clans related to Moses is very noteworthy, and it is a curious coincidence that the name of Aaron's sister Miriam appears in a genealogy of Caleb (1 Chron. iv. 17) with Jether (cp. JETHRO) and Heber (cp. KENITES). In view of the confusion of the traditions and the difficulty of interpreting the details sketched above, the recovery of the historical Aaron is a work of peculiar intricacy. He may well have been the traditional head of the priesthood, and R. H. Kennett has argued in favour of the view that he was the founder of the cult at Bethel (Journ. of Theol. Stud., 1905, pp. 161 sqq.), corresponding to the Mosaite founder of Dan (q.v.). This throws no light upon the name, which still remains quite obscure: and unless Aaron (Aharon) is based upon Aron, ``ark'' (Redslob, R. P. A. Dozy, J. P. N. Land), names associated with Moses and Aaron, which are, apparently, of South Palestinian (or North-Arabian) origin.
For the literature and a general account of the Jewish priesthood, see the articles LEVTTES and PRIEST. . (S. A. C.)
AARON'S ROD, the popular name given to various tall flowering plants (``hag taper,', ``golden rod,'' &c.). In architecture the term is given to an ornamental rod with sprouting leaves, or sometimes with a serpent entwined round it (from the Biblical references in Exodus vii. 10 and Numbers xvii. 8).
AARSSENS, or AARSSEN, FRANCIS VAN (1572-1641), a celebrated diplomatist and statesman of the United Provinces. His talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years, as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court of France. He took a considerable part in the negotiations of the twelve years' truce in 1606. His conduct of affairs having displeased the French king, he was recalled from his post by Oldenbarneveldt in 1616. Such was the hatred he henceforth conceived against his former benefactor, that he did his very utmost to effect his ruin. He was one of the packed court of judges who in 1619 condemned the aged statesman to death. For his share in this judicial murder a deep stain rests on the memory of Aarssens. He afterwards became the confidential counsellor of Maurice, prince of Orange, and afterwards of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange, in their conduct of the foreign affairs of the republic. He was sent on special embassies to Venice, Germany and England, and displayed so much diplomatic skill and finesse that Richelieu ranked him among the three greatest politicians of his time.
AASEN, IVAR (1813-1896), Norwegian philologist and lexicographer, was born at Aasen i Orsten, in Sondmore, Norway, on the. 5th of August 1813. His father, a small peasant-farmer named Ivar Jonsson, died in 1826. He was brought up to farmwork, but he assiduously cultivated all his leisure in reading, and when he was eighteen he opened an elementary school in his native parish. In 1833 he entered the household of H. C. Thoresen the husband of the eminent writer Magdalene Thoresen, in Hero, and here he picked up the elements of Latin. Gradually, and by dint of infinite patience and concentration, the young peasant became master of many languages, and began the scientific study of their structure. About 1841 he had freed himself from all the burden of manual labour, and could occupy his thoughts with the dialect of his native district, the Sondmore; his first publication was a small collection of folk-songs in the Sondmore language (1843) . His remarkable abilities now attracted general attention, and he was helped to continue his studies undisturbed. His Grammar ofthe Norwegian Dialects (1848) was the result of much labour, and of journeys taken to every part of the country. Aasen's famous Dictionary of the Norwegian Dialects appeared in its original form in 1850, and from this publication dates all the wide cultivation of the popular language in Norwegian, since Aasen really did no less than construct, out of the different materials at his disposal, a popular language or definite folke-maal for Norway. With certain modifications, the most important of which were introduced later by Aasen himself, this artificial language is that which has been adopted ever since by those who write in dialect, and which later enthusiasts have once more endeavoured to foist upon Norway as her official language in the place of Dano-Norwegian. Aasen composed poems and plays in the composite dialect to show how it should be used; one of these dramas, The Heir (1855), was frequently acted, and may be considered as the pioneer of all the abundant dialect-literature of the last half-century, from Vinje down to Garborg. Aasen continued to enlarge and improve his grammars and his dictionary. He lived very quietly in lodgings in Christiania, surrounded by his books and shrinking from publicity, but his name grew into wide political favour as his ideas about the language of the peasants became more and more the watch-word of the popular party. Quite early in his career, 1842, he had begun to receive a stipend to enable him to give his entire attention to his philological investigations; and the Storthing—.conscious of the national importance of his woth—-treated hm in this respect with more and more generosity as he advanced in years. He continued his investigations to the last, but it may be said that, after the 1873 edition of his Dictionary, he added but little to his stores. Ivar Aasen holds perhaps an isolated place in literary history as the one man who has invented, or at least selected and constructed, a language which has pleased so many thousands of his countrymen that they have accepted it for their schools, their sermons and their songs. He died in Christiania on the 23rd of September 1896, and was buried with Public honours. (E. G.)
AB, the fifth month of the ecclesiastical and the eleventh of the civil year of the Jews. It approximately Corresponds to the period of the 15th of July to the 15th of August. The word is of Babylonian origin, adopted by the Jews with other calendar names after the Babylonian exile. Tradition ascribes the death of Aaron to the first day of Ab. On the ninth is kept the Fast of Ab, or the Black Fast, to bewail the destruction of the first temple by Nebuchadrezzar (586 B.C.) and of the second by Titus (A.D. 70).
ABA. (1) A form of altazimuth instrument, invented by, and Cabled after, Antoine d'Abbadie; (2) a rough homespun manufactured in Bulgariai (3) a long coarse shirt worn by the Bedouin Arabs.
ABABDA (the Gebadei of Pliny, probably the Troglodytes of classical writers), a nomad tribe of African ``Arabs,, of Hamitic origin. They extend from the Nile at Assuan to the Red Sea, and reach northward to the Kena-Kosseir road, thus occupying the southern border of Egypt east of the Nile. They call themselves ``sons of the Jinns.'' With some of the clans of the Bisharin (q.v.) and possibly the Hadendoa (q.v.) they represent the Blemmyes of classic geographers, and their location to-day is almost identical with that assigned them in Roman times. They were constantly at war with the Romans, who at last subsidized them. In the middle ages they were known as Beja (q.v.), and convoyed pilgrims from the Nile valley to Aidhab, the port of embarkation for Jedda. From time immemorial they have acted as guides to caravans through the Nubian desert and up the Nile valley as far as Sennar. To-day many of them are employed in the telegraph service across the Arabian desert. They intermarried with the Nuba, and settled in small Colonies at Shendi and elsewhere long before the Egyptian invasion (A.D. 1820-1822). They are still great trade carriers, and visit very distant districts. The Ababda of Egypt, numbering some 30,000, are governed by an hereditary ``chief.'' Although nominally a vassal of the Khedive he pays no tribute. Indeed he is paid a subsidy, a portion of the road-dues, in return for his safeguarding travellers from Bedouin robbers. The sub-sheikhs are directly responsible to him. The Ababda of Nubia, reported by Joseph von Russegger, who visited the country in 1836, to number some 40,000, have since diminished, having probably amalgamated with the Bisharin, their hereditary enemies when they were themselves a powerful nation. The Ababda generally speak Arabic (mingled with Barabra [Nubian] words), the result of their long-continued contact with Egypt; but the southern and south-eastern portion of the tribe in many cases still retain their Beja dialect, ToBedawiet. Those of Kosseir will not speak this before strangers, as they believe that to reveal the mysterious dialect would bring ruin on them. Those nearest the Nile have much fellah blood in them. As a tribe they claim an Arab origin, apparently through their sheikhs. They have adopted the dress and habits of the fellahin, unlike their kinsmen the Bisharin and Hadendoa, who go practically naked. They are neither so fierce nor of so fine a physique as these latter. They are lithe and well built, but small: the average height is little more than 5 ft., except in the sheikh clan, who are obviously of Arab origin. Their complexion is more red than black, their features angular, noses straight and hair luxuriant. They bear the character of being treacherous and faithless, being bound by no oath, but they appear to be honest in money matters and hospitable, and, however poor, never beg. Formerly very poor, the Ababda became wealthy after the British occupation of Egypt. The chief settlements are in Nubia, where they live in villages and employ themselves in agriculture. Others of them fish in the Red Sea and then hawk the salt fish in the interior. Others are pedlars, while charcoal burning, wood-gathering and trading in gums and drugs, especially in senna leaves, occupy many. Unlike the true Arab, the Ababda do not live in tents, but build huts with hurdles and mats, or live in natural caves, as did their ancestors in classic times. They have few horses, using the camel as beast of burden or their ``mount'' in war. They live chiefly on milk and durra, the latter eaten either raw or roasted. They are very superstitious, believing, for example, that evil would overtake a family if a girl member should, after her marriage, ever set eyes on her mother: hence the Ababda husband has to make his home far from his wife's village. In the Mahdist troubles (1882-1898) many ``friendlies'' were recruited from the tribe.
For their earlier history see BEJA; see also BISHARIN,
HADENDOA, KABBABish; and the following authorities:—-Sir
F. R. Wingate, Mahdism and the Egyptian Sudan (Lond.
1891); Giuseppe Sergi, Africa: Antropologia della Stirpe
Camitica (Turin, 1897); A. H. Keane, Ethnology of Egyptian
Sudan (Lond. 1884); Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, edited by
Count Gleichen (Lond. 1905); Joseph von Russegger, Die
Reisen in Afrika (Stuttgart, 1841-1850). (T. A. J.)
ABACA, or ABAKA, a native name for the plant Musa textilis, which produces the fibre called Manila Hemp (q.v.). .
ABACUS (Gr. abax, a slab Fr. abaque, tailloir), in architecture, the upper member of the capital of a column. Its chief function is to provide a larger supporting surface for the architrave or arch it has to carry. In the Greek Doric order the abacus is a plain square slab. In the Roman and Renaissance Doric orders it is crowned by a moulding. In the Archaic-Greek Ionic order, owing to the greater width of the capital, the abacus is rectangular in plan, and consists of a carved ovolo moulding. In later examples the abacus is square, except where there are angle volutes, when it is slightly curved over the same. In the Roman and Renaissance Ionic capital, the abacus is square with a fillet On the top of an ogee moulding, but curved over angle volutes. In the Greek Corinthian order the abacus is moulded, its sides are concave and its angles canted (except in one or two exceptional Greek capitals, where it is brought to a sharp angle); and the same shape is adopted in the Roman and Renaissance Corinthian and Composite capitals, in some cases with the ovolo moulding carved. In Romanesque architecture the abacus is square with the lower edge splayed off and moulded or carved, and the same was retained in France during the medieval period; but in England,in Early English work, a circular deeply moulded abacus was introduced, which in the 14th and 15th centuries was transformed into an octagonal one. The diminutive of Abacus, ABACISCUS, is applied in architecture to the chequers or squares of a tessellated pavement . ``Abacus'' is also the name of an instrument employed by the ancients for arithmetical calculations; pebbles, hits of bone or coins being used as counters. Fig. 1 shows a Roman abacus taken from an ancient monument. It contains seven long and seven shorter rods or bars, the former having four perforated beads running on them and the latter one. The bar marked 1 indicates units, X tens, and so on up to millions. The beads on the shorter bars denote fives,—five units, five tens, &c. The rod O and corresponding short rod are for marking ounces; and the short quarter rods for fractions of an ounce.
The Swan-Pan of the Chinese (fig. 2) closely resembles the Roman abacus in its construction and use. Computations are made with it by means of balls of bone or ivory running on slender bamboo rods, similar to the simpler board, fitted up with beads strung on wires, which is employed in teaching the rudiments of arithmetic in English schools.
FIG. 2.—Chinese Swan-Pan. The name of ``abacus'' is also given, in logic, to an instrument, often called the ``logical machine,'' analogous to the mathematical abacus. It is constructed to show all the possible combinations of a set of logical terms with their negatives, and, further, the way in which these combinations are affected by the addition of attributes or other limiting words, i.e. to simplify mechanically the solution of logical problems. These instruments are all more or less elaborate developments of the ``logical slate,'' on which were written in vertical columns all the combinations of symbols or letters which could be made logically out of a definite number of terms. These were compared with any given premises, and those which were incompatible were crossed off. In the abacus the combinations are inscribed each on a single slip of wood or similar substance, which is moved by a key; incompatible combinations can thus be mechanically removed at will, in accordance with any given series of premises. The principal examples of such machines are those of W. S. Jevons (Element. Lessons in Logic, C. xxiii.), John Venn (see his Symbolic Logic, 2nd ed., 1894, p. 135), and Allan Marquand (see American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1885, pp. 303-7, and Johns Hopkins University Studies in Logic, 1883).
ABADDON, a Hebrew word meaning ``destruction.'' In poetry it comes to mean ``place of destruction,'' and so the underworld or Sheol (cf. Job xxvi. 6; Prov. xv. 11). In Rev. ix. 11 Abaddon ((Abaddon) is used of hell personified, the prince of the underworld. The term is here explained as Apollyon (q.v.), the ``destroyer.', W. Baudissin (Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklo padie) notes that Hades and Abaddon in Rabbinic writings are employed as personal names, just as shemayya in Dan. iv. 23, shamayim (``heaven''), and makom (``place'') among the Rabbins, are used of God.
ABADEH, a small walled town of Persia, in the province of Fars, situated at an elevation of 6200 ft. in a fertile plain on the high road between Isfahan and Shiraz, 140 m. from the former and 170 m. from the latter place. Pop. 4000. It is the chief place of the Abadeh-Iklid district, which has 30 villages; it has telegraph and post offices, and is famed for its carved wood-work, small boxes, trays, sherbet spoons, &c., made of the wood of pear and box trees.
ABAE (rabai), a town in the N.E. corner of Phocis, in Greece, famous in early times for its oracle of Apollo, one of those consulted by Croesus (Herod. i. 46). It was rich in treasures (Herod. viii. 33), but was sacked by the Persians, and the temple remained in a ruined state. The oracle was, however, still consulted, e.g. by the Thebans before Leuctra (Paus. iv. 32. 5). The temple seems to have been burnt again during the Sacred War, and was in a very dilapidated state when seen by Pausanias (x. 35), though some restoration, as well as the building of a new temple, was undertaken by Hadrian. The sanctity of the shrine ensured certain privileges to the people of Abac (Bull. Corresp. Hell. vi. 171), and these were confirmed by the Romans. The polygonal wabs of the acropolis may still be seen in a fair state of preservation on a circular hill standing about 500 ft. above the little plain of Exarcho; one gateway remains, and there are also traces of town walls below. The temple site was on a low spur of the hill, below the town. An early terrace wall supports a precinct in which are a stoa and some remains of temples; these were excavated by the British School at Athens in 1894, but very little was found.
See also W. M. Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, ii. p. 163i Journal of Hellenic Studies, xvi. pp. 291-312 (V. W. Yorke). . (E. GR.)
ABAKANSK, a fortified town of Siberia, in the Russian government of Yeniseisk, on the river Yenisei, 144 m. S.S.W. of Krasnoyarsk, in lat. 54 deg. 20' N., long. 91 deg. 40' E. This is considered the mildest and most salubrious place in Siberia, and is remarkable for certain tumuli (of the Li Kitai) and statues of men from seven to nine feet high, covered with hieroglyphics. Peter the Great had a fort built here in 1707. Pop. 2000.
ABALONE, the Spanish name used in California for various species of the shell-fish of the Haliotidae family, with a richly coloured shell yielding mother-of-pearl. This sort of Haliotis is also commonly called ``ear-shell,'' and in Guernsey ``ormer'' (Fr. ormier, for oreille de mer). The abalone shell is found especially at Santa Barbara and other places on the southern Californian coast, and when polished makes a beautiful ornament. The mollusc itself is often eaten, and dried for consumption in China and Japan.
ABANA (or AMANAH, classical Chrysorrhoas) and PHARPAR, the ``rivers of Damascus'' (2 Kings v. 12), now generally identified with the Barada (i.e. ``cold'') and the A`waj (i.e. ``crooked'') respectively, though if the reference to Damascus be limited to the city, as in the Arabic version of the Old Testament, Pharpar would be the modern Taura. Both streams run from west to east across the plain of Damascus, which owes to them much of its fertility, and lose themselves in marshes, or lakes, as they are called, on the borders of the great Arabian desert. John M'Gregor, who gives an interesting description of them in his Rob Roy on the Jordan, affirmed that as a work of hydraulic engineering, the system and construction of the canals, by which the Abana and Pharpar were used for irrigation, might be considered as one of the most complete and extensive in the world. As the Barada escapes from the mountains through a narrow gorge, its waters spread out fan-like, in canals or ``rivers'', the name of one of which, Nahr Banias, retains a trace of Abana.
ABANCOURT, CHARLES XAVIER JOSEPH DE FRANQUE VILLE D', (1758-1792), French statesman, and nephew of Calonne. He was Louis XVI.'s last minister of war (July 1792), and organized the defence of the Tuileries for the 10th of August. Commanded by the Legislative Assembly to send away the Swiss guards, he refused, and was arrested for treason to the nation and sent to Orleans to be tried. At the end of August the Assembly ordered Abancourt and the other prisoners at Orleans to be transferred to Paris with an escort commanded by Claude Fournier, ``the American.'' At Versailles they learned of the massacres at Paris, and Abancourt and his fellow-prisoners were murdered in cold blood on the 8th of September 1792. Fournier was unjustly charged with complicity in the crime.
ABANDONMENT (Fr. abandonnement, from abandonner, to abandon, relinquish; abandonner was originally equivalent to mettrea bandon, to leave to the jurisdiction, i.e. of another, bandon being from Low Latin bandum, bannum, order, decree, ``ban''), in law, the relinquishment of an interest, claim, privilege or possession. Its signification varies according to the branch of the law in which it is employed, but the more important uses of the word are summarized below.
ABANDONMENT OF AN ACTION is the discontinuance of proceedings commenced in the High Court of Justice either because the plaintiff is convinced that he will not succeed in his action or for other reasons. Previous to the Judicature Act of 1875, considerable latitude was allowed as to the time when a suitor might abandon his action, and yet preserve his right to bring another action on the same suit (see NONSUIT); but since 1875 this right has been considerably curtailed, and a plaintiff who has deilvered his reply (see PLEADING), and afterwards wishes to abandon his action, can generally obtain leave so to do only on condition of bringing no further proceedings in the matter.
ABANDONMENT IN MARINE INSURANCE is the surrender of the ship or goods insured to the insurers, in the case of a constructive total loss of the thing insured. For the requisites and effects of abandonment in this sense See INSURANCE, MARINE.
ABANDONMENT OF WIFE AND CHILDREN is dealt with under DESERTION, and the abandonment or exposure of a young child under the age of two, which is an indictable misdemeanour, is dealt with under CHILDREN, CRUELTY TO.
ABANDONMENT OF DOMICILE is the ceasing to reside permanently in a former domicile coupled with the intention of choosing a new domicile. The presumptions which will guide the court in deciding whether a former domicile has been abandoned or not must be inferred from the facts of each individual case. See DOMICILE.
ABANDONMENT OF AN EASEMENT is the relinquishment of some accommodation or right in another's land, such as right of way, free access of light and air, &c. See EASEMENT.
ABANDONMENT OF RAILWAYS has a legal signification in England recognized by statute, by authority of which the Board of Trade may, under certain circumstances, grant a warrant to a railway authorizing the abandonment of its line or part of it.
ABANO, PIETRO D, (1250-1316), known also as PETRUS DE APONO or APONENSIS, Italian physician and philosopher, was born at the Italian town from which he takes his name in 1250, or, according to others, in 1246. After studying medicine and philosophy at Paris he settled at Padua, where he speedily gained a great reputation as a physician, and availed himself of it to gratify his avarice by refusing to visit patients except for an exorbitant fee. Perhaps this, as well as his meddling with astrology, caused him to be charged with practising magic, the particular accusations being that he brought back into his purse, by the aid of the devil, all the money he paid away, and that he possessed the philosopher's stone. He was twice brought to trial by the Inquisition; on the first occasion he was acquitted, and he died (1316) before the second trial was completed. He was found guilty, however, and his body was ordered to be exhumed and burned; but a friend had secretly removed it, and the Inquisition had, therefore, to content itself with the public proclamation of its sentence and the burning of Abano in effigy. In his writings he expounds and advocates the medical and philosophical systems of Averroes and other Arabian writers. His best known works are the Conciliator differentiarum quae inter philosophos et medicos versantur (Mantua, 1472; V.enice, 1476), and De venenis eorumque remediis (1472), of which a French translation was published at Lyons in 1593.
ABANO BAGNI, a town of Venetia, Italy, in the province of Padua, on the E. slope of the Monti Euganei; it is 6 m. S.W. by rail from Padua. Pop. (1901) 4556. Its hot springs and mud baths are much resorted to, and were known to the Ronlans as Aponi fons or Aquae Patavinae. Some remains of the ancient baths have been discovered (S. Mandruzzato, Trattato dei Bagni d' Abano, Padua, 1789). An oracle of Geryon lay near, and the so-called sortes Praenestinae (C.I.L. i., Berlin, 1863; 1438-1454), small bronze cylinders inscribed, and used as oracles, were perhaps found here in the 16th century.
ABARIS, a Scythian or Hyperborean, priest and prophet of Apollo, who is said to have visited Greece about 770 B.C., or two or three centuries later. According to the legend, he travelled throughout the country, living without food and riding on a golden arrow, the gift of the god; he healed the sick, foretold the future, worked miracles, and delivered Sparta from a plague (Herod. iv. 36; Iamblichus, De Fit. Pythag. xix. 28). Suidas credits him with several works: Scythian oracles, the visit of Apollo to the Hyperboreans, expiatory formulas and a prose theogony.
ABATED, an ancient technical term applied in masonry and metal work to those portions which are sunk beneath the surface, as in inscriptions where the ground is sunk round the letters so as to leave the letters or ornament in relief.
ABATEMENT (derived through the French abattre, from the Late Latin battere, to beat), a beating down or diminishing or doing away with; a term used especially in various legal phrases.
ABATEMENT OF A NUISANCE is the remedy allowed by law to a person or public authority injured by a public nuisance of destroying or removing it, provided no breach of the peace is committed in doing so. In the case of private nuisances abatement is also allowed provided there be no breach of the peace, and no damage be occasioned beyond what the removal of the nuisance requires. (See NUISANCE.)
ABATEMENT OF FREEHOLD takes place where, after the death of the person last seised, a stranger enters upon lands before the entry of the heir or devisee, and keeps the latter out of possession. It differs from intrusion, which is a similar entry by a stranger on the death of a tenant for life, to the prejudice of the reversioner, or remainder man; and from disseisin, which is the forcible or fraudulent expulsion of a person seised of the freehold. (See FREEHOLD.)
ABATEMENT OE DEBTS AND LEGACIES. When the equitable assets (see ASSETS) of a deceased person are not sufficient to satisfy fully all the creditors, their debts must abate proportionately, and they must accept a dividend. Also, in the case of legacies when the funds or assets out of which they are payable are not sufficient to pay them in full, the legacies abate in proportion, unless there is a priority given specially to any particular legacy (see LEGACY). Annuities are also subject to the same rule as general legacies.
ABATEMENT IN PLEADING, or plea in abatement, was the defeating or quashing of a particular action by some matter of fact, such as a defect in form or the personal incompetency of the parties suing, pleaded by the defendant. It did not involve the merits of the cause, but left the right of action subsisting. In criminal proceedings a plea in abatement was at one time a common practice in answer to an indictment, and was set up for the purpose of defeating the indictment as framed, by alleging misnomer or other misdescription of the defendant. Its effect for this purpose was nullified by the Criminal Law Act 1826, which required the court to amend according to the truth, and the Criminal Procedure Act 1851, which rendered description of the defendant unnecessary. All pleas in abatement are now abolished (R.S.G. Order 21, r. 20). See PLEADING.
ABATEMENT IN LITIGATION. In civil proceedings, no action abates by reason of the marriage, death or bankruptcy of any of the parties, if the cause of action survives or continues, and does not become defective by the assignment, creation or devolution of any estate or title pendente lite (R.S.C. Order 17, r. 1). Criminal proceedings do not abate on the death of the prosecutor, being in theory instituted by the crown, but the crown itself may bring about their termination without any decision on the merits and without the assent of the prosecutor.
ABATEMENT OF FALSE LIGHTS. By the Merchant Shipping Act 1854, the general lighthouse authority (see LIGHTHOUSE) has power to order the extinguishment or screening of any light which may be mistaken for a light proceeding from a lighthouse.
ABATEMENT IN COMMERCE is a deduction sometimes made at a custom-house from the fixed duties on certain kinds of goods, on account of damage or loss sustained in warehouses. The rate and conditions of such deductions are regulated, in England, by the Customs Consolidation Act 1853. (See also DRAWBACK; REBATE.)
ABATEMENT IN HERALDRY is a badge in coat-armour, indicating some kind of degradation or dishonour. It is called also rebatement.
ABATI, or DELL' ABBATO, NICCOLO (1512—1571), a celebrated fresco-painter of Modena, whose best works are there and at Bologna. He accompanied Primaticcio to France, and assisted in decorating the palace at Fontainebleau (1552—1571). His pictures exhibit a combination of skill in drawing, grace and natural colouring. Some of his easel pieces in oil are in different collections; one of the finest, in the Dresden Gallery, represents the martyrdom of St Peter and St Paul.
ABATIS,ABATTIS or ABBATTIS (a French word meaning a heap of material thrown), a term in field fortification for an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid in a row, with the tops directed towards the enemy and interlaced or tied with wire. The abatis is used alone or in combination with wire-entanglements and other obstacles.
ABATTOIR (from abattre, to strike down), a French word often employed in English as an equivalent of ``slaughter-house'' (q.v.), the place where animals intended for food are killed.
ABAUZIT, FIRMIN (1679-1767), a learned Frenchman, was born of Protestant parents at Uzes, in Languedoc. His father died when he was but two years of age; and when, on the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685, the authorities took steps to have him educated in the Roman Catholic faith, his mother contrived his escape. For two years his brother and he lived as fugitives in the mountains of the Cevennes, but they at last reached Geneva, where their mother afterwards joined them on escaping from the imprisonment in which she was held from the time of their flight. Abauzit at an early age acquired great proficiency in languages, physics and theology. In 1698 he went to Holland, and there became acquainted with Pierre Bayle, P. Jurieu and J. Basnage. Proceeding to England, he was introduced to Sir Isaac Newton, who found in him one of the earliest defenders of his discoveries. Sir Isaac corrected in the second edition of his Principia an error pointed out by Abauzit, and, when sending him the Commercium Epistolicum, said, ``You are well worthy to judge between Leibnitz and me.'' The reputation of Abauzit induced William III. to request him to settle in England, but he did not accept the king's offer, preferring to return to Geneva. There from 1715 he rendered valuable assistance to a society that had been formed for translating the New Testament into French. He declined the offer of the chair of philosophy in the university in 1723, but accepted, in 1727, the sinecure office of librarian to the city of his adoption. Here he died at a good old age, in 1767. Abauzit was a man of great learning and of wonderful versatility. Whatever chanced to be discussed,it used to be said of Abauzit, as of Professor W. Whewell of more modern times, that he seemed to have made it a subject of particular study. Rousseau, who was jealously sparing of his praises, addressed to him, in his Nouvelle Heloise, a fine panegyric; and when a stranger flatteringly told Voltaire he had come to see a great man, the philosopher asked him if he had seen Abauzit. Little remains of the labours of this intellectual giant, his heirs having, it is said, destroyed the papers that came into their possession, because their own religious opinions were different. A few theological, archaeological abd astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the Journal Helvetique and elsewhere, and he contributed several papers to Rousseau's Dictionnaire de musique (1767). He wrote a work throwing doubt on the canonical authority of the Apocalypse, which called forth a reply from Dr Leonard Twells. He also edited and made valuable additions to J. Spon's Histoire de la republique de Geneve. A collection of his writings was published at Geneva in 1770 (OEuvres de feu M. Abauzit), and another at London in 1773 (OEuvres diverses de M. Abauzit). Some of them were translated into English by Dr Edward Harwood (1774).
Information regarding Abauzit will be found in J.
Senebier's HIstoire Litteraire de Geneve, Harwood's
Miscellanies, and W. Orme's Bibliotheca Biblica (1824).
'ABAYE, the name of a Babylonian 'amora (q.v.), born in the middle of the 3rd century. He died in 339.
'ABBA 'ARIKA, the name of thc Babylonian 'amora (q.v.) of the 3rd century, who established at Sura the systematic study of the Rabbinic traditions which, using the Mishnah as text, led to the compilation of the Talmud. He is commonly known as Rab.
ABBADIDES, a Mahommedan dynasty which arose in Spain on the downfall of the western caliphate. It lasted from about 1023 till 1091, but during the short period of its existence was singularly active and typical of its time. The founder of the house was Abd-ul-Qasim Mahommed, the cadi of Seville in 1023. He was the chief of an Arab family settled in the city from the first days of the conquest. The Beni-abbad were not of ancient descent, though the poets, whom they paid largely, made an illustrious pedigree for them when they had become powerful. They were, however, very rich. Abd-ul-Qasim gained the confidence of the townsmen by organizing a successful resistance to the Berber soldiers of fortune who were grasping at the fragments of the caliphate. At first he professed to rule only with the advice of a council formed of the nobles,but when his power became established he dispensed with this show of republican government, and then gave himself the appearance of a legitimate title by protecting an impostor who professed to be the caliph Hisham II. When Abd-ul-Qasim died in 1042 he had created a state which, though weak in itself, was strong as compared to the little powers about it. He had made his family the recognized leaders of the Mahommedans of Arab and native Spanish descent against the Berber element, whose chief was the king of Granada. Abbad, surnamed El Motaddid, his son and successor, is one of the most remarkable figures in Spanish Mahommedan history. He had a striking resemblance to the Italian princes of the later middle ages and the early renaissance, of the stamp of Fiiipo Maria Visconti. El Motaddid was a poet and a lover of letters, who was also a poisoner, a drinker of wine, a sceptic and treacherous to the utmost degree. Though he waged war all through his reign he very rarely appeared in the field, but directed the generals, whom he never trusted, from his ``lair'' in the fortified palace, the Alcazar of Seville. He killed with his own hand one of his sons who had rebelled against him. On one occasion he trapped a number of his enemies, the Berber chiefs of the Ronda, into visiting him, and got rid of them by smothering them in the hot room of a bath. It was his taste to preserve the skulls of the enemies he had killed—those of the meaner men to be used as flower-pots, while those of the princes were kept in special chests. His reign until his death on the 28th of February 1069 was mainly spent in extending his power at the expense of his smaller neighbours, and in conflicts with his chief rival the king of Granada. These incessant wars weakened the Mahommedans, to the great advantage of the rising power of the Christian kings of Leon and Castile, but they gave the kingdom of Seville a certain superiority over the other little states. After 1063 he was assailed by Fernando El Magno of Castile and Leon, who marched to the gates of Seville, and forced him to pay tribute. His son, Mahommed Abd-ul-Qasim Abenebet—-who reigned by the title of El Motamid—was the third and last of the Abbadides, He was a no less remarkable person than his father and much more amiable. Like him he was a poet, and a favourer of poets. El Motamid went, however, considerably further in patronage of literature than his father, for he chose as his favourite and prime minister the poet Ibn Ammar. In the end the vanity and featherheadedness of Ibn Ammar drove his master to kill him. El Motamid was even more influenced by his favourite wife, Romaica, than by his vizir. He had met her paddling in the Guadalquivir, purchased her from her master, and made her his wife. The caprices of Romaica, and the lavish extravagance of Motamid in his efforts to please her, form the subject of many stories. In politics he carried on the feuds of his family with the Berbers, and in his efforts to extend his dominions could be as faithless as his father. His wars and his extravagance exhausted his treasury, and he oppressed his subjects by taxes. In 1080 he brought down upon himself the vengeance of Alphonso VI. of Castile by a typical piece of flighty oriental barbarity. He had endeavoured to pay part of his tribute to the Christian king with false money. The fraud was detected by a Jew, who was one of the envoys of Alphonso. El Motamid, in a moment of folly and rage, crucified the Jew and imprisoned the Christian members of the mission. Alphonso retaliated by a destructive raid. When Alphonso took Toledo in 1085, El Motamid called in Yusef ibn Tashfin, the Almoravide (see SPAIN, History, and ALMORAVIDES). During the six years which preceded his deposition in 1091, El Motamid behaved with valour on the field, but with much meanness and political folly. He endeavoured to curry favour with Yusef by betraying the other Mahommedan princes to him, and intrigued to secure the alliance of Alphonso against the Almoravide. It was probably during this period that he surrendered his beautiful daughter Zaida to the Christian king, who made her his concubine, and is said by some authorities to have married her after she bore him a son, Sancho. The vacillations and submissions of El Motamid did not save him from the fate which overtook his fellow-princes. Their scepticism and extortion had tired their subjects, and the mullahs gave Yusef a ``fetva'' authorzing him to remove them in the interest of religion. In 1091 the Almoravides stormed Seville. El Motamid, who had fought bravely, was weak enough to order his sons to surrender the fortresses they still held, in order to save his own life. He died in prison in Africa in 1095.
AUTHORITIES.—Dozy, Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne,
Leiden, 1861; and Historia Abbadidarum (Scriptorum
Arabum loci de Abbadidio), Leiden, 1846. (D. II.)
ABBADIE, ANTOINE THOMSON D', (1810-1897), and ARNAUD MICHEL D', (1815-1893), two brothers notable for their travels in Abyssinia during the first half of the 19th century. They were both born in Dublin, of a French father and an Irish mother, Antoine in 1810 and Arnaud in 1815. The parents removed to France in 1818, and there the brothers received a careful scientific education. In 1835 the French Academy sent Antoine on a scientific mission to Brazil, the results being published at a later date (1873) under the title of Observations relatives a! la physique du globe faites au Bresil et en Ethiopie. The younger Abbadie spent some time in Algeria before, in 1837, the two brothers started for Abyssinia, landing at Massawa in February 1838. They visited various parts of Abyssinia, including the then little-known districts of Ennarea and Kaffa, sometimes together and sometimes separately. They met with many difficulties and many adventures, and became involved in political intrigues, Antoine especially exercising such influence as he possessed in favour of France and the Roman Catholic missionaries. After collecting much valuable information concerning the geography, geology, archaeology and natural history of Abyssinia, the brothers returned to France in 1848 and began to prepare their materials for publication. The younger brother, Arnaud, paid another visit to Abyssinia in 1853. The more distinguished brother, Antoine, became involved in various controversies relating both to his geographical results and his political intrigues. He was especially attacked by C. T. Beke, who impugned his veracity, especially with reference to the journey to Kana. But time and the investigations of subsequent explorers have shown that Abbadie was quite trustworthy as to his facts, though wrong in his contention—hotly contested by Beke—that the Blue Nile was the main stream. The topographical results of his explorations were published in Paris in 1860-1873 in Geodesie d'Ethiopie, full of the most valuable information and illustrated by ten maps. Of the Geographie de l'Ethiopie (Paris, 1890) only one volume has been published. In Un Catalogue raisonne de manuscrits ethiopiens (Paris, 1859) is a description of 234 Ethiopian manuscripts collected by Antoine. He also compiled various vocabularies, including a Dictionnaire de la langue amarinna (Paris, 1881), and prepared an edition of the Shepherd of Hermas, with the Latin version, in 1860. He published numerous papers dealing with the geography of Abyssinia, Ethiopian coins and ancient inscriptions. Under the title of Reconnaissances magnetiques he published in 1890 an account of the magnetic observations made by him in the course of several journeys to the Red Sea and the Levant. The general account of the travels of the two brothers was published by Arnaud in 1868 under the title of Douze ans dans la Haute Ethiopie. Both brothers received the grand medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 1850. Antoine was a knight of the Legion of Honour and a member of the Academy of Sciences. He died in 1897, and bequeathed an estate in the Pyrenees, yielding 40,000 francs a year, to the Academy of Sciences, on condition of its producing within fifty years a catalogue of half-a-million stars. His brother Arnaud died in 1893. (J. S. K.)
ABBADIE, JAKOB (1654?-1727), Swiss Protestant divine, was born at Nay in Bern. He studied at Sedan, Saumur and Puylaurens, with such success that he received the degree of doctor in theology at the age of seventeen. After spending some years in Berlin as minister of a French Protestant church, where he had great success as a preacher, he accompanied Marshal Schomberg, in 1688, to England, and next year became minister of the French church in the Savoy, London. His strong attachment to the cause of King William appears in his elaborate defence of the Revolution (Defense de la nation britannique, 1692) as well as in his history of the conspiracy of 1696 (Histoire de la grande conspiration d'Angleterre). The king promoted him to the deanery of Killaloe in Ireland. He died in London in 1727. Abbadie was a man of great ability and an eloquent preacher, but is best known by his religious treatises, several of which were translated from the original French into other languages and had a wide circulation throughout Europe. The most important of these are Traite de la verite de la religion chretienne (1684); its continuation, Traite de la divinite de Jesus-Christ (1689); and L'Art de se connaitre soi-meme (1692).
'ABBAHU, the name of a Palestinian 'amora (q.v.) who flourished c. 279-320. 'Abbahu encouraged the study of Greek by Jews. He was famous as a collector of traditional lore, and is very often cited in the Talmud.
ABBA MARI (in full, Abba Mari ben Moses benJoseph), French rabbi, was born at Lunel, near Montpellier, towards the end of the 13th century. He is also known as Yarhi from his birthplace (Heb. Yerah, i.e. moon, lune), and he further took the name Astruc, Don Astruc or En Astruc of Lunel. The descendant of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides as well as with the Talmud. In Montpellier, where he lived from 1303 to 1306, he was much distressed by the prevalence of Aristotelian rationalism, which, through the medium of the works of Maimonides, threatened the authority of the Old Testament, obedience to the law, and the belief in miracles and revelation. He, therefore, in a series of letters (afterwards collected under the title Minhat Kenaot, i.e. ``Jealousy Offering'') called upon the famous rabbi Solomon ben Adret of Barcelona to come to the aid of orthodoxy. Ben Adret, with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in 1305. The result was a great schism among the Jews of Spain and southern France, and a new impulse was given to the study of philosophy by the unauthorized interference of the Spanish rabbis. On the expulsion of the Jews from France by Philip IV. in 1306, Abba Mari settled at Perpignan, where he published the letters connected with the controversy. His subsequent history is unknown. Beside the letters, he was the author of liturgical poetry and works on civil law.
AUTHORITIES.—Edition of the Minhat Kenaot by M. L. Bislichis (Pressburg, 1838); E. Renan, Les rabbins francais, pp. 647 foll.; Perles, Salomo ben Abrahann ben Adereth, pp. 15-54; Jewish Encyclopaedia, s.v. ``Abba Mari.''
ABBAS I. (1813-1854), pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun Pasha and grandson of Mehemet Ali, founder of the reigning dynasty. As a young man he fought in Syria under Ibrahim Pasha (q.v.), his real or supposed uncle. The death of Ibrahim in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August following, on the death of Mehemet Alh—who had been deposed in July 1848 on account of mental weakness,—Abbas succeeded to the pashalik. He has been generally described as a mere voluptuary, but Nubar Pasha spoke of him as a true Turkish gentleman of the old school. He was without question a reactionary, morose and taciturn, and spent nearly all his time shut up in his palace. He undid, as far as lay in his power, the works of his grandfather, good and bad. Among other things he abolished trade monopolies, closed factories and schools, and reduced the strength of the army to 9000 men. He was inaccessible to adventurers bent on plundering Egypt, but at the instance of the British government allowed the construction of a railway from Alexandria to Cairo. In July 1854 he was murdered in Benha Palace by two of his slaves, and was succeeded by his uncle, Said Pasha.
ABBAS II. (1874— ), khedive of Egypt. Abbas Hilmi Pasha, great-great-grandson of Mehemet Ali, born on the 14th of July 1874, succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as khedive of Egypt on the 8th of January 1892. When a boy he visited England, and he had an English tutor for some time in Cairo. He then went to school in Lausanne, and from there passed on to the Theresianum in Vienna. In addition to Turkish, his mother tongue, he acquired fluency in Arabic, and a good conversational knowledge of English, French and German. He was still at college in Vienna when the sudden death of his father raised him to the Khedivate; and he was barely of age according to Turkish law, which fixes majority at eighteen in cases of succession to the throne. For some time he did not co-operate very cordially with Great Britain. He was young and eager to exercise his new power. His throne and life had not been saved for him by the British, as was the case with his father. He was surrounded by intriguers who were playing a game of their own, and for some time he appeared almost disposed to be as reactionary as his great-uncle Abbas I. But in process of time he learnt to understand the importance of British counsels. He paid a second visit to England in 1900, during which he frankly acknowledged the great good the British had done in Egypt, and declared himself ready to follow their advice and to co-operate with the British officials administering Egyptian affairs. The establishment of a sound system of native justice, the great remission of taxation, the reconquest of the Sudan, the inauguration of the stupendous irrigation works at Assuan, the increase of cheap, sound education, each received his approval and all the assistance he could give. He displayed more interest in agriculture than in statecraft, and his farm of cattle and horses at Koubah, near Cairo, would have done credit to any agricultural show in England; at Montaza, near Alexandria, he created a similar establishment. He married the Princess Ikbal Hanem and had several children. Mahommed Abdul Mouneim, the heir-apparent, was born on the 20th of February 1899.
ABBAS I. (e. 1557-1628 or 1629), shah of Persia, called the Great, was the son of shah Mahommed (d. 1586) . In the midst of general anarchy in Persia, he was proclaimed ruler of Khorasan, and obtained possession of the Persian throne in 1586. Determined to raise the fallen fortunes of his country, he first directed his efforts against the predatory Uzbegs, who occupied and harassed Khorasan. After a long and severe struggle, he regained Meshed, defeated them in a great battle near Herat in 1597, and drove them out of his dominions. In the wars he carried on with the Turks during nearly the whole of his reign, his successes were numerous, and he acquired, or regained, a large extent of territory. By the victory he gained at Bassora in 1605 he extended his empire beyond the Euphrates; sultan Ahmed I. was forced to cede Shirvan and Kurdistan in 1611; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year's siege in 1623. In 1622 he took the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese, by the assistance of the British, and much of its trade was diverted to the town of Bander-Abbasi, which was named after the shah. When he died, his dominions reached from the Tigris to the Indus. Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his successes in arms, and by the magnificence of his court and of the buildings which he erected, but also by his reforms in the administration of his kingdom. He encouraged commerce, and, by constructing highways and building bridges, did much to facilitate it. To foreigners, especially Christians, he showed a spirit of tolerance; two Englishmen, Sir Anthony and Sir Robert Shirley, or Sherley, were admitted to his confidence. His fame is tarnished, however, by numerous deeds of tyranny and cruelty. His own family, especially, suffered from his fits of jealousy; his eldest son was slain, and the eyes of his other children were put out, by his orders.
See The Three Brothers, or Travels of Sir Anthony, Sir
Robert Sherley, &c. (London, 1823); Sir C. R. Markham,
General Sketch of the History of Persia (London, 1874).
ABBASIDS, the name generally given to the caliphs of Bagdad, the second of the two great dynasties of the Mahommedan empire. The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the throne on their descent from Abbas (A.D. 566-652), the eldest uncle of Mahomet, in virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the Omayyads, the descendants of Omayya. Throughout the second period of the Omayyads, representatives of this family were among their most dangerous opponents, partly by the skill with which they undermined the reputation of the reigning princes by accusations against their orthodoxy, their moral character and their administration in general, and partly by their cunning manipulation of internecine jealousies among the Arabic and non-Arabic subjects of the empire. In the reign of Merwan II. this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas, who, supported hy the province of Khorasan, achieved considerable successes, but was captured (A.D. 747) and died in prison (as some hold, assassinated). The quarrel was taken up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu'l-Abbas as-Saffah, who after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab (750) finally crushed the Omayyads and was proclaimed caliph.
The history of the new dynasty is marked by perpetual strife and the development of luxury and the liberal arts, in place of the old-fashioned austerity of thought and manners. Mansur, the second of the house, who transferred the seat of government to Bagdad, fought successfully against the peoples of Asia Minor, and the reigns of Harun al-Rashid (786—809) and Mamun (813-833) were periods of extraordinary splendour. But the empire as a whole stagnated and then decayed rapidly. Independent monarchs established themselves in Africa and Khorasan (Spain had remained Omayyad throughout), and in the north-west the Greeks successfully encroached. The ruin of the dynasty came, however, from those Turkish slaves who were constituted as a royal bodyguard by Moqtasim (833-842). Their power steadily grew until Radi (934-941) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed b. Raik. Province after province renounced the authority of the caliphs, who were merely lay figures, and finally Hulagu, the Mongol chief, burned Bagdad (Feb. 28th, 1258). The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamelukes, but the dynasty finally disappeared with Motawakkil III., who was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I.
See CALIPHATE (Sections B, 14 and C), where a detailed account of the dynasty will be found.
ABBAS MIRZA (c. 1783-1833), prince of Persia, was a younger son of the shah, Feth Ali, but on account of his mother's royal birth was destined by his father to succeed him. Entrusted with the government of a part of Persia, he sought to rule it in European fashion, and employed officers to reorganize his army. He was soon at war with Russia, and his aid was eagerly solicited by both England and Napoleon, anxious to checkmate one another in the East. Preferring the friendship of France, Abbas continued the war against Russia, but his new ally could give him very little assistance, and in 1814 Persia was compelled to make a disadvantageous peace. He gained some successes during a war between Turkey and Persia which broke out in 1821, but cholera attacked his army, and a treaty was signed in 1823. His second war with Russia, which began in 1825, was attended with the same want of success as the former one, and Persia was forced to cede some territory. When peace was made in 1828 Abbas then sought to restore order in the province of Khorasan, which was nominally under Persian supremacy, and while engaged in the task died at Meshed in 1833. In 1834 his eldest son, Mahommed Mirza, succeeded Feth Ali as shah. Abbas was an intelligent prince, possessed some literary taste, and it noteworthy on account of the comparative simplicity of his life.
ABBAS-TUMAN, a spa in Russian Transcaucasia, government of Tiflis, 50 m. S.W. of the Borzhom railway station and 65 m. E. of Batum, very picturesquely situated in a cauldron-shaped valley. It has hot sulphur baths (93 1/2 deg. -118 1/2 deg. Fahr.) and an astronomical observatory (4240 ft.).
ABBAZIA, a popular summer and winter resort of Austria, in Istria, 56 m. S.E. of Trieste by rail. Pop. (1900) 2343. It is situated on the Gulf of Quarnero in a sheltered position at the foot of the Monte Maggiore (4580 ft.), and is surrounded by beautiiul woods of laurel. The average temperature is 50 deg. Fahr. in winter, and 77 deg. Fahr. in summer. The old abbey, San Giacomo della Priluca, from which the place derives its name, has been converted into a villa. Abbazia is frequented annually by about 16,000 visitors. The whole sea-coast to the north and south of Abbazia is rocky and picturesque, and contains several smaller winter-resorts. The largest of them is Lovrana (pop. 513), situated 5 m. to the south.
ABBESS (Lat. abbatissa, fem. form of abbas, abbot), the female superior of an abbey or convent of nuns. The mode of election, position, rights and authority of an abbess correspond generally with those of an abbot (q.v.). The office is elective, the choice being by the secret votes of the sisters from their own body. The abbess is solemnly admitted to her office by episcopal benediction, together with the conferring of a staff and pectoral cross, and holds for life, though liable to be deprived for misconduct. The council of Trent fixed the qualifying age at forty, with eight years of profession. Abbesses have a right to demand absolute obedience of their nuns, over whom they exercise discipline, extending even to the power of expulsion, subject, however, to the bishop. As a female an abbess is incapable of performing the spiritual functions of the priesthood belonging to an abbot. She cannot ordain, confer the veil, nor excommunicate. In England abbesses attended ecclesiastical councils, e.g. that of Becanfield in 694, where they signed before the presbyters.
By Celtic usage abbesses presided over joint-houses of monks and nuns. This custom accompanied Celtic monastic missions to France and Spain, and even to Rome itself. At a later period, A.D. 1115, Robert, the founder of Fontevraud, committed the government of the whole order, men as well as women, to a female superior.
In the German Evangelical church the title of abbess (Aebtissin) has in some cases—e.g. Itzehoe—survived to designate the heads of abbeys which since the Reformation have continued as Stifte, i.e. collegiate foundations, which provide a home and an income for unmarried ladies, generally of noble birth, called canonesses (Kanonissinen) or more usually Stiftsdamen. This office of abbess is of considerable social dignity, and is sometimes filled by princesses of the reigning houses.
ABBEVILLE, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Somme, on the Somme, 12 m. from its mouth in the English Channel, and 28 m. N,W. of Amiens on the Northern railway. Pop. (1901) 18,519; (1906) 18,971. It lies in a pleasant and fertile valley, and is built partly on an island and partly on both sides of the river, which is canalized from this point to the estuary. The streets are narrow, and the houses are mostly picturesque old structures, built of wood, with many quaint gables and dark archways. The most remarkable building is the church of St Vulfran, erected in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The original design was not completed. The nave has only two bays and the choir is insignificant. The facade is a magnificent specimen of the flamboyant Gothic style, flanked by two Gothic towers. Abbeville has several other old churches and an hotel-de-ville, with a belfry of the 13th century. Among the numerous old houses, that known as the Maison de Francois Ie, which is the most remarkable, dates from the 16th century. There is a statue of Admiral Courbet (d. 1885) in the chief square. The public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, and a communal college. Abbeville is an important industrial centre; in addition to its old-established manufacture of cloth, hemp-spinning, sugar-making, ship-building and locksmiths' work are carried on; there is active commerce in grain, but the port has little trade.
Abbeville, the chief town of the district of Ponthieu, first appears in history during the 9th century. At that time belonging to the abbey of St Riquier, it was afterwards governed by the counts of Ponthieu. Together with that county, it came into the possession of the Alencon and other French families, and afterwards into that of the house of Castillo, from whom by marriage it fell in 1272 to Edward I., king of England. French and English were its masters by turns till 1435 when, by the treaty of Arras, it was ceded to the duke of Burgundy. In 1477 it was annexed by Louis XI., king of France, and was held by two illegitimate branches of the royal family in the 16th and 17th centuries, being in 1696 reunited to the crown.
ABBEY, EDWIN AUSTIN (1852- ), American painter, was born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of April 1852. He left the schools of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts at the age of nineteen to enter the art department of the publishing house of Harper & Brothers in New York, where, in company with such men as Howard Pyle, Charles Stanley Reinhart, Joseph Pennell and Alfred Parsons, he became very successful as an illustrator. In 1878 he was sent by the Harpers to England to gather material for illustrations of the poems of Robert Herrick. These, published in 1882, attracted much attention, and were followed by illustrations for Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer (1887), for a volume of Old Songs (1889), and for the comedies (and a few of the tragedies) of Shakespeare. His water-colours and pastels were no less successful than the earlier illustrations in pen and ink. Abbey now became closely identified with the art life of England, and was elected to the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours in 1883. Among his water-colours are ``The Evil Eye'' (1877); ``The Rose in October'' (1879); ``An Old Song'' (1886); ``The Visitors'' (1890), and ``The Jongleur'' (1892). Possibly his best known pastels are ``Beatrice,'' ``Phyllis,'' and ``Two Noble Kinsmen.'' In 1890 he made his first appearance with an oil painting, ``A May Day Morn,'' at the Royal Academy in London. He exhibited ``Richard duke of Gloucester and the Lady Anne'' at the Royal Academy in 1896, and in that year was elected A.R.A., becoming a full R.A. in 1898. Apart from his other paintings, special mention must be made of the large frescoes entitled ``The Quest of the Holy Grail,'' in the Boston Public Library, on which he was occupied for some years; and in 1901 he was commissioned by King Edward VII. to paint a picture of the coronation, containing many portraits elaborately grouped. The dramatic subjects, and the brilliant colouring of his on pictures, gave them pronounced individuality among the works of contemporary painters.Abbey became a member not only of the Royal Academy, but also of the National Academy of Design of New York, and honorary member of the Royal Bavarian Society, the Societe Nationale des Beaux Arts (Paris), the American Water-Colour Society, etc. He received first class gold medals at the International Art Exhibition of Vienna in 1898, at Philadelphia in 1898, at the Paris Exhibitions of 1889 and 1900, and at Berlin in 1903; and was made a chevalier of the French Legion of Honour.
ABBEY (Lat. abbatia; from Syr. abba, father), a monastery, or conventual establishment, under the government of an ABBOT or an ABBESS. A priory only differed from an abbey in that the superior bore the name of prior instead of abbot. This was the case in all the English conventual cathedrals, e.g. Canterbury, Ely, Norwich, &c., where the archbishop or bishop occupied the abbot's place, the superior of the monastery being termed prior. Other priories were originally offshoots from the larger abbeys, to the abbots of which they continued subordinate; but in later times the actual distinction between abbeys and priories was lost.
The earliest Christian monastic communities (see MONASTICISM) with which we are acquainted consisted of groups of cells or huts collected about a common centre, which was usually the abode of some anchorite celebrated for superior holiness or singular asceticism, but without any attempt at orderly arrangement. The formation of such communities in the East does not date from the introduction of Christianity. The example had been already set by the Essenes in Judea and the Therapeutae in Egypt.
In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the ascetics were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, at no great distance from some village, supporting themselves by the labour of their own hands, and distributing the surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to the poor. Increasing religious fervour, aided by persecution, drove them farther and farther away from the abodes of men into mountain solitudes or lonely deserts. The deserts of Egypt swarmed with the ``cells'' or huts of these anchorites. Anthony, who had retired to the Egyptian Thebaid during the persecution of Maximin, A.D. 312, was the most celebrated among them for his austerities, his sanctity, and his power as an exorcist. His fame collected round him a host of followers, emulous of his sanctity. The deeper he withdrew into the wilderness, the more numerous his disciples became. They refused to be separated from him, and built their ceils round that of their spiritual father. Thus arose the first monastic community, consisting of anchorites living each in his own little dwelling, united together under one superior. Anthony, as Neander remarks (Church History, vol. iii. p. 316, Clark's trans.), ``without any conscious design of his own, had become the founder of a new mode of living in common, Coenobitism.'' By degrees order was introduced in the groups of huts. They were arranged in lines like the tents in an encampment, or the houses in a street. From this arrangement these lines of single cells came to be known as Laurae, Laurai, "streets" or "lanes."
The real founder of coenobian koinos, common, and bios, life) monasteries in the modern sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian of the beginning of the 4th century. The first community established by him was at Tabennae, an island of the Nile in Upper Egypt. Eight others were founded in his lifetime, numbering 3000 monks. Within fifty years from his death his societies could reckon 50,000 members. These coenobia resembled vilIages, peopled by a hard-working religious community, ail of one sex. The buildings were detached, small and of the humblest character. Each cell or hut, according to Sozomen (H.R. iii. 14), contained three monks. They took their chief meal in a common refectory at 3 P.M., up to which hour they usually fasted. They ate in silence, with hoods so drawn over their faces that they could see nothing but what was on the table before them. The monks spent all the time, not devoted to religious services or study, in manual labour. Palladius, who visited the Egyptian monasteries about the close of the 4th century, found among the 300 members of the coenobium of Panopolis, under the Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4 carpenters, 12 cameldrivers and 15 tanners. Each separate community had its own oeconomus or steward, who was subject to a chief oeconomus stationed at the head establishment. All the produce of the monks' labour was committed to him, and by him shipped to Alexandria. The money raised by the sale was expended in the purchase of stores for the support of the communities, and what was over was devoted to charity. Twice in the year the superiors of the several coenobia met at the chief monastery, under the presidency of an archimandrite (``the chief of the fold,'' from miandra, a fold), and at the last meeting gave in reports of their administration for the year. The coenobia of Syria belonged to the Pachomian institution. We learn many details concerning those in the vicinity of Antioch from Chrysostom's writings. The monks lived in separate huts, kalbbia, forming a religious hamlet on the mountain side. They were subject to an abbot, and observed a common rule. (They had no refectory, but ate their common meal, of bread and water only, when the day's labour was over, reclining on strewn grass, sometimes out of doors,) Four times in the day they joined in prayers and psalms.
Santa Laura, Mount Athos.
The necessity for defence from hostile attacks, economy of space and convenience of access from one part of the community to another, by degrees dictated a more compact and orderly arrangement of the buildings of a monastic coenobium. Large piles of building were erected, with strong outside walls, capable of resisting the assaults of an enemy, within which all the necessary edifices were ranged round one or more open courts, usually surrounded with cloisters. The usual Eastern arrangement is exemplified in the plan of the convent of Santa Laura, Mount Athos (Laura, the designation of a monastery generally, being converted into a female saint).
This monastery, like the oriental monasteries generally, is surrounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall, enclosing an area of between 3 and 4 acres. The longer side extends to a length of about 500 feet. There is only one main entrance, on the north side (A), defended by three separate iron doors. Near the entrance is a large tower (M), a constant feature in the monasteries of the Levant. There is a small postern gate at L. The enceinte comprises two large open courts, surrounded with buildings connected with cloister galleries of wood or stone. The outer court, which is much the larger, contains the granaries and storehouses (K), and the kitchen (H) and other offices connected with the refectory (G). Immediately adjacent to the gateway is a two-storied guest-house, opening from a cloister (C). The inner court is surrounded by a cloister (EE), from which open the monks' cells (II). In the centre of this court stands the catholicon or conventual church, a square building with an apse of the cruciform domical Byzantine type, approached by a domed narthex. In front of the church stands a marble fountain (F), covered by a dome supported on columns. Opening from the western side of the cloister, but actually standing in the outer court, is the refectory (G), a large cruciform building, about 100 feet each way, decorated within with frescoes of saints. At the upper end is a semicircular recess, recalling the triclinium of the Lateran Palace
A. Gateway.
B. Chapels.
C. Guest-house.
D. Church.
E. Cloister.
F. Fountain.
G. Refectory.
H. Kitchen.
I. Cells.
K. Storehouses.
L. Postern gate.
M. Tower.
FIG. 1.—-Monastery of Santa Laura, Mount Athos (Lenoir).
at Rome, in which is placed the seat of the hegumenos or abbot. This apartment is chiefly used as a hall of meeting, the oriental monks usually taking their meals in their separate cells.
Vatopede
St Laura is exceeded in magnitude by the convent of Vatopede also on Mount Athos. This enormous establishment covers at least 4 acres of ground, and contains so many separate buildings within its massive walls that it resembles a fortified town. It lodges above 300 monks, and the establishment of the hegumenos is described as resembling the court of a petty sovereign prince. The immense refectory, of the same cruciform shape as that of St Laura, will accommodate 500 guests at its 24 marble tables.
The annexed plan of a Coptic monastery, from Lenoir, shows a church of three aisles, with cellular apses, and two ranges of cells on either side of an oblong gallery.
Benedictine.
Monasticism in the West owes its extension and development to Benedict of Nursia (born A.D. 480). His rule was diffused with miraculous rapidity from the parent foundation on Monte Cassino through the whole of western Europe, and every country witnessed the erection of monasteries far exceeding anything that had yet been seen in spaciousness and splendour. Few great towns in Italy were without their Benedictine convent, and they quickly rose in all the great centres of population in England, France and Spain. The number of these monasteries founded between A.D. 520 and 700 is amazing. Before the Council of Constance, A.D. 1415, no fewer than 15,070 abbeys had been established of this order alone. The buildings of a Benedictine abbey were uniformly arranged ofter one plan, modified where necessary (as at Durham and Worcester, where the monasteries stand close to the steep bank of a river) to accommodate the arrangement to local circumstances. We have no existing examples of the earlier monasteries of the Benedictine order. They have all yielded to the ravages of time and the violence of man. But we have fortunately preserved to us an elaborate plan of the great Swiss monastery of St Gall, erected about A.D. 820, which puts us in possession of the whole arrangements of a monastery of the first class towards the early part of the 9th century. This curious and interesting plan has been made the subject of a memoir both by Keller (Zurich, 1844) and by Professor Robert Willis (Arch. Journal, 1848, vol. v. pp. 86-117. To the latter we are indebted for the substance of the following description, as well as for the plan, reduced from his elucidated transcript of the original preserved
FIG. 2.—-Plan of Coptic Monastery.
A. Narthex. B. Church.
C. Corridor, with cells on each side.
D. Staircase.
in the archives of the convent. The general apperance of the convent is that of a town of isolated houses with streets running between them. It is evidently planned in compliance with the Benedictine rule, which enjoined that, if possible, the monastery should contain within itself every necessary of life, as well as the buildings more intimately connected with the religious and social life of its inmates. It should comprise a mill, a bakehouse, stables and cow-houses, together with accommodation for carrying on all necessary mechanical arts within the walls, so as to obviate the necessity of the monks going outside its limits.
The general distribution of the buildings may be thus described:-The church, with its cloister to the south, occupies the centre of a quadrangular area, about 430 feet square. The buildings, as in all great monasteries, are distributed into groups. The church forms the nucleus, as the centre of the religious life of the community. In closest connexion with the church is the group of buildings appropriated to the monastic line and its daily requirements—-the refectory for eating, the dormitory for sleeping, the common room for social intercourse, the chapter-house for religious and disciplinary conference. These essential elements of monastic life are ranged about a cloister court, surrounded by a covered arcade, affording communication sheltered ftom the elements between the various buildings. The infirmary for sick monks, with the physician's house and physic garden, lies to the east. In the same group with the infirmary is the school for the novices. The outer school, with its headmaster's house against the opposite wall of the church, stands outside the convent enclosure, in close proximity to the abbot's house, that he might have a constant eye over them. The buildings devoted to hospitality are divided into three groups,—one for the reception of distinguished guests, another for monks visiting the monastery, a third for poor travellers and pilgrims. The first and third are placed to the right and left of the common entrance of the monastery,—-the hospitium for distinguished guests being placed on the north side of the church, not far from the abbot's house; that for the poor on the south side next to the farm buildings. The monks are lodged in a guest-house built against the north wall of the church. The group of buildings connected with the material wants of the establishment is placed to the south and west of the church, and is distinctly separated from the monastic buildings. The kitchen, buttery and offices are reached by a passage from the west end of the refectory, and are connected with the bakehouse and brewhouse, which are placed still farther away. The whole of the southern and western sides is devoted to workshops, stables and farm-buildings. The buildings, with some exceptions, seem to have been of one story only, and all but the church were probably erected of wood. The whole includes thirty-three separate blocks. The church (D) is cruciform, with a nave of nine bays, and a semicircular apse at either extremity. That to the west is surrounded by a semicircular colonnade, leaving an open ``paradise'' (E) between it and the wall of the church. The whole area is divided by screens into various chapels. The high altar (A) stands immediately to the east of the transept, or ritual choir; the altar of St Paul (B) in the eastern, and that of St Peter (C) in the western apse. A cylindrical campanile stands detached from the church on either side of the western apse (FF).
The ``cloister court', (G) on the south side of the nave of the
FIG. 3.—Ground-plan of St
CHURCH. U. House for blood-letting.
A. High altar. V. School.
B. Altar of St Paul. W. Schoolmaster's lodgings.
C. Altar of St Peter. X1X1. Guest-house for those
D. Nave. of superior rank
E. Paradise. X2X2. Guest-house for the poor.
FF. Towers. Y. Guest-chamber for strange monks.
MONASTIC BUILDINGS
G. Cloister. MENIAL DEPARTMENT.
H. Calefactory, with Z. Factory.
dormitory over. a. Threshing-floor
I. Necessary. b. Workshops.
J. Abbot's house. c, c. Mills.
K. Refectory. d. Kiln.
L. Kitchen. e. Stables.
M. Bakehouse and brewhouse. f Cow-sheds.
N. Cellar. g. Goat-sheds.
O. Parlour. (over. h. Pig-sties. i. Sheep-folds.
P1. Scriptorium with library k, k, k. Servants' and workmen's
P2. Sacristy and vestry. sleeping-chambers.
Q. House of Novices—1.chapel; l. Gardener's house
2. refectory; 3. calefactory; m,m. Hen and duck house.
4. dormitory; 5. master's room n. Poultry-keeper's house.
6. chambers. o. Garden.
R. Infirmary—1—6 as above in q. Bakehouse for sacramental
the house of novices.
S. Doctor's house. s, s, s. Kitchens.
T. Physic garden. t, t, t. Baths.
church has on its east side the ``pisalis'' or ``calefactory', (H), the common sitting-room of the brethren, warmed by flues beneath the floor. On this side in later monasteries we invariably find the chapterhouse, the absence of which in this plan is somewhat surprising. It appears, however, from the inscriptions on the plan itself, that the north walk of the cloisters served for the purposes of a chapter-house, and was fitted up with benches on the long sides. Above the calefactory is the ``dormitory'' opening into the south transept of the church, to enable the monks to attend the nocturnal services with readiness. A passage at the other end leads to the ``necessarium'' (I), a portion of the monastic buildings always planned with extreme care. The southern side is occupied by the ``refectory'' (K), from the west end of which by a vestibule the kitchen (L) is reached. This is separated from the main buildings of the monastery, and is connected by a long passage with a building containing the bake house and brewhouse (M), and the sleeping-rooms of the servants. The upper story of the refectory is the ``vestiarium,'' where the ordinary clothes of the brethren were kept. On the western side of the cloister is another two story building (N). The cellar is below, and the larder and store-room above. Between this building and the church, opening by one door into the cloisters, and by another to the outer part of the monastery area, is the ``parlour'' for interviews with visitors from the external world (O). On the eastern side of the north transept is the ``scriptorium'' or writing-room (P1), with the library above.
To the east of the church stands a group of buildings comprising two miniature conventual establishments, each complete in itself. Each has a covered cloister surrounded by the usual buildings, i.e. refectory, dormitory, &c., and a church or chapel on one side, placed back to back. A detached building belonging to each contains a bath and a kitchen. One of these diminutive convents is appropriated to the ``oblati'' or novices (Q), the other to the sick monks as an ``imfirmary'' (R).
The ``residence of the physicians'' (S) stands contiguous to the infirmary, and the physic garden (T) at the north-east corner of the monastery. Besides other rooms, it contains a drug store, and a chamber for those who are dangerously ill. The ``house for bloodletting and purging'' adjoins it on the west (U).
The ``outer school,'' to the north of the convent area, contains a large schoolroom divided across the middle by a screen or partition, and surrounded by fourteen little rooms, termed the dwellings of the scholars. The head-master's house (W) is opposite, built against the side wall of the church. The two ``hospitia'' or `' guest-houses'' for the entertainment of strangers of different degrees (X1 X2) comprise a large common chamber or refectory in the centre, surrounded by sleeping-apartments. Each is provided with its own brewhouse and bakehouse, and that for travellers of a superior order has a kitchen and storeroom, with bedrooms for their servants and stables for their horses. There is also an ``hospitium'' for strange monks, abutting on the north wall of the church (Y).
Beyond the cloister, at the extreme verge of the convent area to the south, stands the `factory'' (Z), containing workshops for shoemakers, saddlers (or shoemakers, sellarii), cutlers and grinders, trencher-makers, tanners, curriers, fullers, smiths and goldsmiths, with their dwellings in the rear. On this side we also find the farmbuildings, the large granary and threshing-floor (a), mills (c), malthouse (d). Facing the west are the stables (e), ox-sheds (f), goatstables (gl, piggeries (h), sheep-folds (i), together with the servants' and labourers' quarters (k). At the south-east corner we find the hen and duck house, and poultry-yard (m), and the dwelling of the keeper (n). Hard by is the kitchen garden (o), the beds bearing the names of the vegetables growing in them, onions, garlic, celery, lettuces, poppy, carrots, cabbages, &c., eighteen in all. In the same way the physic garden presents the names of the medicinal herbs, and the cemetery (p) those of the trees, apple, pear, plum, quince, &c., planted there.
Canterbury Cathedral.
A curious bird's-eye view of Canterbury Cathedral and its annexed conventual buildings, taken about 1165, is preserved in the Great Psalter in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge. As elucidated by Professor Willis,1 it exhibits the plan of a great Benedictine monastery in the 12th century, and enables us to compare it with that of the 9th as seen at St Gall. We see in both the same general principles of arrangement, which indeed belong to all Benedictine monasteries, enabling us to determine with precision the disposition of the various buildings, when little more than fragments of the walls exist. From some local reasons, however, the cloister and monastic buildings are placed on the north, instead, as is far more commonly the case, on the south of the church. There is also a separate chapter-house, which is wanting at St Gall.
The buildings at Canterbury, as at St Gall, form separate groups. The church forms the nucleus. In immediate contact with this, on the north side, lie the cloister and the group of buildings devoted to the monastic life. Outside of these, to the west and east, are the ``halls and chambers devoted to the exercise of hospitality, with which every monastery was provided, for the purpose of receiving as guests persons who visited it, whether clergy or laity, travellers, pilgrims or paupers.'' To the north a large open court divides the monastic from the menial buildings, intentionally placed as remote as possible from the conventual buildings proper, the stables, granaries, barn, bakehouse, brewhouse, laundries, &c., inhabited by the lay servants of the establishment. At the greatest possible distance from the church, beyond the precinct of the convent, is the eleemosynary department. The almonry for the relief of the poor, with a great hall annexed, forms the paupers' hospitium.
The most important group of buildings is naturally that devoted to monastic life. This includes two Cloisters, the great cloister surrounded by the buildings essentially connected with the daily life of the monks,—-the church to the south, the refectory or frater-house here as always on the side opposite to the church, and farthest removed from it, that no sound or smell of eating might penetrate its sacred precincts, to the east the dormitory, raised on a vaulted undercroft, and the chapter-house adjacent, and the lodgings of the cellarer to the west. To this officer was committed the provision of the monks' daily food, as well as that of the guests. He was, therefore, appropriately lodged in the immediate vicinity of the refectory and kitchen, and close to the guest-hall. A passage under the dormitory leads eastwards to the smaller or infirmary cloister, appropriated to the sick and infirm monks. Eastward of this cloister extend the hall and chapel of the infirmary, resembling in form and arrangement the nave and chancel of an aisled church. Beneath the dormitory, looking out into the green court or herbarium, lies the ``pisalis'' or ``calefactory,'' the common room of the monks. At its north-east corner access was given from the dormitory to the necessarium, a portentous edifice in the form of a Norman hall, 145 ft. long by 25 broad, containing fifty-five seats. It was, in common with all such offices in ancient monasteries, constructed with the most careful regard to cleanliness and health, a stream of water running through it from end to end. A second smaller dormitory runs from east to west for the accommodation of the conventual officers, who were bound to sleep in the dormitory. Close to the refectory, but outside the cloisters, are the domestic offices connected with it: to the north, the kitchen, 47 ft. square, surmounted by a lofty pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court; to the west, the butteries, pantries, &c. The infirmary had a small kitchen of its own. Opposite the refectory door in the cloister are two lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a monastic dining-hall, at which the monks washed before and after taking food.
The buildings devoted to hospitality were divided into three groups. The prior's group ``entered at the south-east angle of the green court, placed near the most sacred part of the cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or nobility who were assigned to him.'' The cellarer's buildings were near the west end of the nave, in which ordinary visitors of the middle class were hospitably entertained. The inferior pilgrims and paupers were relegated to the north hall or almonry, just within the gate, as far as possible from the other two.
Westminster Abbey.
Westminster Abbey is another example of a great Benedictine abbey, identical in its general arrangements, so far as they can be traced, with those described above. The cloister and , monastic buildings lie to the south side of the church. Parallel to the nave, on the south side of the cloister, was the refectory, with its lavatory at the door. On the eastern side we find the remains of the dormitory, raised on a vaulted substructure and communicating with the south transept. The chapter-house opens out of the same alley of the cloister. The small cloister lles to the south-east of the larger cloister, and still farther to the east we have the remains of the infirmary with the table hall, the refectory of those who were able to leave their chambers. The abbot's house formed a small courtyard at the west entrance, close to the inner gateway. Considerable portions of this remain, including the abbot's parlour. celebrated as ``the Jerusalem Chamber,'' his hall, now used for the Westminster King's Scholars, and the kitchen and butteries beyond.
York.
St Mary's Abbey, York, of which the ground-plan is annexed, exhibits the usual Benedictine arrangements. The precincts are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three sides, the river Ouse being sufficient protection on the fourth side. The entrance was by a strong gateway (U) to the north. Close to the entrance was a chapel, where is now the church of St Olaf (W), in which the new-comers paid their devotions immediately on their arrival. Near the gate to the south was the guest-hall or hospitium (T). The buildings are completely ruined, but enough remains to enable us to identify the grand cruciform church (A), the cloister-court with the chapterhouse (B), the refectory (I), the kitchen-court with its offices (K, O, O) and the other principal apartments. The infirmary has perished completely.
Some Benedictine houses display exceptional arrangements, dependent upon local circumstances, e.g. the dormitory of Worcester runs from east to west, from the west walk of the cloister, and that of Durham is built over the west, instead of
FIG. 4
St Mary's Abbey, York (Benedictine).—Churton's Monnastic Ruins.
A. Church. O. Offices.
B. Chapter-house. P. Cellars.
C. Vestibule to ditto. Q. Uncertain.
E. Library or scriptorium. R. Passage to abbot's house.
F. Calefactory. S. Passage to common house.
G. Necessary. T. Hospitium.
H. Parlour. U. Great gate.
I. Refectory. V. Porter's lodge.
K. Great kitchen and court. W. Church of St Olaf.
L. Cellarer's office. X. Tower.
M. Cellars. Y. Entrance from Bootham.
N. Passage to cloister.
as usual, over the east walk; but, as a general rule, the arrangements deduced from the examples described may be regarded as invariable.
The history of monasticism is one of alternate periods of decay and revival. With growth in popular esteem came increase in material wealth, leading to luxury and worldliness. The first religious ardour cooled, the strictness of the rule was relaxed, until by the 10th century the decay of discipline was so complete in France that the monks are said to have been frequently unacquainted with the rule of St Benedict, and even ignorant that they were bound by any rule at all. The reformation of abuses generally took the form of the establishment of new monastic orders, with new and more stringent rules, requiring a modification of the architectural arrangements. One of the earliest of these reformed orders was the Cluniac. This order took its name from,the little village of Cluny, 12 miles N.W. of Macon, near which, about A.D. 909, a reformed Benedictine abbey was founded by William, duke of Aquitaine and count of Auvergne, under Berno, abbot of Beaume. He was succeeded by Odo, who is often regarded as the founder of the order. The fame of Cluny spread far and wide. Its rigid rule was adopted by a vast number of the old Benedictine abbeys, who placed themselves in affiliation to the mother society, while new foundations sprang up in large numbers, all owing allegiance to the ``archabbot,'' established at Cluny. By the end of the 12th century the number of monasteries affiliated to Cluny in the various countries of western Europe amounted to 2000. The monastic establishment of Cluny was one of the most extensive and magnificent in France. We may form some idea of its enormous dimensions from the fact recorded, that when, A.D. 1245, Pope Innocent IV., accompanied by twelve cardinals,
FIG. 5—Abbey of Cluny, from
A. Gateway. F. Tomb of St Hugh. M. Bakehouse.
B. Narthex. G. Nave. N. Abbey buildings.
C. Choir. H. Cloister. O. Garden.
D. High-altar. K. Abbot's house. P. Refectory.
E. Retro-altar. L. Guest-house.
a patriarch, three archbishops, the two generals of the Carthusians and Cistercians, the king (St Louis), and three of his sons, the queen mother, Baldwin, count of Flanders and emperor of Constantinople, the duke of Burgundy, and six lords, visited the abbey, the whole party, with their attendants, were lodged withn the monastery without disarranging the monks, 400 in number. Nearly the whole of the abbey buildings, including the magnificent church, were swept away at the close of the 18th century. When the annexed ground-plan was taken, shortly before its destruction, nearly all the monastery, with the exception of the church, had been rebuilt.
The church, the ground-plan of which bears a remarkable resemblance to that of Lincoln Cathedral, was of vast dimensions. It was 656 ft. high. The nave (G) had double vaulted aisles on either side. Like Lincoln, it had an eastern as well as a western transept, each furnished with apsidal chapels to the east. The western transept was 213 ft. long, and the eastern 123 ft. The choir terminated in a semicircular apse (F), surrounded by five chapels, also semicircular. The western entrance was approached by an ante-church, or narthex (B), itself an aisled church of no mean dimensions, flanked by two towers, rising from a stately flight of steps bearing a large stone cross. To the south of the church lay the cloister-court (H), of immense size, placed much farther to the west than is usually the case. On the south side of the cloister stood the refectory (P), an immense building, 100 ft. long and 60 ft. wide, accommodating six longitudinal and three transverse rows of tables. It was adorned with the portraits of the chief benefactors of the abbey, and with Scriptural subjects. The end wall displayed the Last Judgment. We are unhappily unable to identify any other of the principal buildings (N). The abbot's residence (K), still partly standing, adjoined the entrance-gate. The guest-house (L) was close by. The bakehouse (M), also remaining, is a detached building of immense size.
English Cluniac
The first English house of the Cluniac order was that of Lewes, founded by the earl of Warren, c. A.D. 1077. Of this only a few fragments of the domestic buildings exist. The best preserved Cluniac houses in England are Castle Acre, Norfolk, and Wenlock, Shropshire. Ground-plans of both are given in Britton's Architectural Antiquities. They show several departures from the Benedictine arrangement. In each the prior's house is remarkably perfect. All Cluniac houses in England were French colonies, governed by priors of that nation. They did not secure their independence nor become ``abbeys'' till the reign of Henry VI. The Cluniac revival, with all its brilliancy, was but short-lived. The celebrity of this, as of other orders, worked its moral ruin. With their growth in wealth and dignity the Cluniac foundations became as worldly in life and as relaxed in discipline as their predecessors, and a fresh reform was needed.
Cistercian
The next great monastic revival, the Cistercian, arising in the last years of the 11th century, had a wider diffusion, and a longer and more honourable existence. Owing its real origin, as a distinct foundation of reformed Benedictines, in the year 1098, to Stephen Harding (a native of Dorsetshire, educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and deriving its name from Citeaux (Cistercium), a desolate and almost inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of Champagne and Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide celebrity of the order are undoubtedly to be attributed to the enthusiastic piety of St Bernard, abbot of the first of the monastic colonies, subsequently sent forth in such quick succession by the first Cistercian houses, the far-famed abbey of Clairvaux (de Clara Valle), A.D. 1116. The rigid self-abnegation, which was the ruling principle of this reformed congregation of the Benedictine order, extended itself to the churches and other buildings erected by them. The characteristic of the Cistercian abbeys was the extremest simplicity and a studied plainness. Only one tower—a central one —was permitted, and that was to be very low. Unnecessary pinnacles and turrets were prohibited. The triforium was omitted. The windows were to be plain and undivided, and it was forbidden to decorate them with stained glass. All needless ornament was proscribed. The crosses must be of wood; the candlesticks of iron. The renunciation of the world was to be evidenced in all that met the eye. The same spirit manifested itself in the choice of the sites of their monasteries. The more dismal, the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appeared, the more did it please their rigid mood. But they came not merely as ascetics, but as improvers. The Cistercian monasteries are, as a rule, found placed in deep well-watered valleys. They always stand on the border of a stream; not rarely, as at Fountains, the buildings extend over it. These valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a very different aspect when the brethren first chose them as the place of their retirement. Wide swamps, deep morasses, tangled thickets, wild impassable forests, were their prevailing features. The ``bright valley,'' Clara Vallis of St Bernard, was known as the ``valley of Wormwood,'' infamous as a den of robbers. ``It was a savage dreary solitude, so utterly barren that at first Bernard and his companions were reduced to live on beech leaves.''-(Milman's Lat. Christ. vol. iii. p. 335.)
Clairvaux
All Cistercian monasteries, unless the circumstances of the locality forbade it, were arranged according to one plan. The general arrangement and distribution of the various buildings, which went to make up one of these vast establishments, may be gathered from that of St Bernard's own abbey of Clairvaux, which is here given. It will be observed that the abbey precincts are surrounded by a strong wall, furnished at intervals with watch-towers and other defensive works. The wall is nearly encircled by a stream of water, artificially diverted from the small rivulets which flow through the precincts, furnishing the establishment with an abundant supply in every part, for the litigation of the gardens and orchards, the sanitary requirements of the brotherhood and for the use of the offices and workshops.
The precincts are divided across the centre by a wall, running from N. to S., into an outer and inner ward,—the former containing the menial, the latter the monastic buildings. The precincts are entered by a gateway (P), at the extreme western extremity, giving admission to the lower ward. Here the barns, granaries, stables, shambles, workshops and workmen,s lodgings were placed, without any regard to symmetry, convenience being the only consideration. Advancing eastwards, we have before us the wall separating the
FIG. 6.—.Clairvaux, No. 1 (Cistercian), General
A. Cloisters. I. Wine-press and O. Public presse.
B. Ovens, and corn hay-chamber P. Gateway.
oil-mills K. Parlour R. Remains of old monastery
C. St Bernard's cell. L. Workshops and.
D. Chief entrance. workmen's lodgings S. Oratory.
E. Tanks for fish. V. Tile-works.
F. Guest-house. M. Slaughter-house. X. Tile-kiln.
G. Abbot's house. N. Barns and stables. V. Water-courses.
H. Stables.
outer and inner ward, and the gatehouse (D) affording communication between the two. On passing through the gateway, the outer court of the inner ward was entered, with the western facade of the monastic church in front. Immediately on the right of entrance was the abbot's house (G), in close proximity to the guest-house (F). On the other side of the court were the stables, for the accommodation of the horses of the guests and their attendants (H). The church occupied a central position. To the south was the great cloister (A), surrounded by the chief monastic buildings, and farther to the east the smaller cloister, opening out of which were the infirmary, novices' lodgings and quarters for the aged monks. Still farther to the east, divided from the monastic buildings by a wall, were the vegetable gardens and orchards, and tank for fish. The large fish-ponds, an indispensable adjunct to any ecclesiastical foundation, on the formation of which the monks lavished extreme care and pains, and which often remain as almost the only visible traces of these vast establishments, were placed outside the abbey walls.
Plan No. 2 furninshes the ichnography of the distinctly monastic buildings on a larger scale. The usually unvarying arrangement of the Cistercian houses allows us to accept this as a type of the monasteries of this order. The church (A) is the chief feature. It consists of a vast nave of eleven bays, entered by a narthex, with a transept and short apsidal choir. (It may be remarked that the eastern limb in all unaltered Cistercian churches is remarkably short, and usually square.) To the east of each limb of the transept are two square chapels, divided according to Cistercian rule by solid walls. Nine radiating chapels, similarly divided, surround the apse. The stalls of the monks, forming the ritual choir, occupy the four eastern bays of the nave. There was a second range of stalls in the extreme western bays of the nave for the fratres conversi, or lay brothers. To the south of the church, so as to secure as much sun as possible, the cloister was invariably placed, except when local reasons forbade it. Round the cloister (B) were ranged the buildings connected with the monks' daily life. The chapter-house (C) always opened out of the east walk of the cloister in a line with the south transept.
FIG. 7.—Clairvaux, No. 2 (Cistercian), Monastic
A. Church. L. Lodgings of novices. S. Cellars and storehouses.
B. Cloister.
C. Chapter-house. M. Old guest-house. T. Water-course.
D. Monks' parlour. N. Old abbot's lodgings. U. Saw-mill and oil mill
E. Calefactory.
F. Kitchen and court. O. Cloister of V. Currier's shop.
G. Refectory. supernumerary monks.
H. Cemetery. X. Sacristy.
I. Little cloister. P. Abbot's hall. Y. Little library.
K. Infirmary. Q. Cell of St Bernard. Z. Undercroft of dormitory.
R. Stables.
In Cistercian houses this was quadrangular, and was divided by pillars and arches into two or three aisles. Between it and the transept we find the sacristy (X), and a small book-room (Y) armariolum, where the brothers deposited the volumes borrowed from the library. On the other side of the chapter-house, to the south, is a passage (D) communicating with the courts and buildings beyond. This was sometimes known as the parlour, colloquii locus, the monks having the privilege of conversation here. Here also, when iscipline became relaxed, traders, who had the liberty of admission, were allowed to display their goods. Beyond this we often find the calefactorium or day-room—an apartment warmed by flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half frozen during the night offices, betook themselves after the conclusion of lauds, to gain a little warmth, grease their sandals and get themselves ready for the work of the day. In the plan before us this apartment (E) opens from the south cloister walk, adjoining the refectory. The place usually assigned to it is occupied by the vaulted substructure of the dormitory (Z). The dormitory, as a rule, was placed on the east side of the cloister, running over the calethetory and chapter-house, and joined the south transept, where a flight of steps admitted the brethren into the church for nocturnal services. Opening out of the dormitory was always the necessarium, planned with the greatest regard to health and cleanliness, a water-course invariably running from end to end. The refectory opens out of the south cloister at G. The position of the refectory is usually a marked point of difference between Benedictine and Cistercian abbeys. In the former, as at Canterbury, the refectory ran east and west parallel to the nave of the church, on the side of the cloister farthest removed from it. In the Cistercian monasturies, to keep the noise and smell of dinner still farther away from the sacred building, the refectory was built north and south, at right angles to the axis of the church. It was often divided, sometimes into two, sometimes, as here, into three aisles. Outside the refectory door, in the cloister, was the lavatory, where the monks washed their hands at dinner-time. The buildings belonging to the material life of the monks lay near the refectory, as far as possible from the church, to the S.W. With a distinct entrance from the outer court was the kitchen court (F), with its buttery, scullery and larder, and the important adjunct of a stream of running water. Farther to the west, projecting beyond the line of the west front of the church, were vast vaulted apartments (SS), serving as cellars and storehouses, above which was the dormitory of the conversi. Detached from these, and separated entirely from the monastic buildings, were various workshops, which convenience repuired to be banished to the outer precincts, a saw-mill and oil-mill (UU) turned by water, and a currier's shop (V), where the sandals and leathern girdles of the monks were made and repaired.
Returning to the cloister, a vaulted passage admitted to the small cloister (l), opening from the north side of which were eight small cells, assigned to the scribes employed in copying works for the library, which was placed in the upper story, accessible by a turret staircase. To the south of the small cloister a long hall will be noticed. This was a lecture-hall, or rather a hall for the religious disputations customary among the Cistercians. From this cloister opened the infirmary (K), with its hall, chapel, cells, blood-letting house and other dependencies. At the eastern verge of the vast group of buildings we find the novices' lodgings (L), with a third cloister near the novices' quarters and the original guest-house (M). Detached from the great mass of the monastic edifices was the original abbot's house (N), with its dining-hall (P). Closely adjoining to this, so that the eye of the father of the whole establishment should be constantly over those who stood the most in need of his watchful care,—those who were training for the monastic life, and those who had worn themselves out in its duties,—was a fourth cloister (O), with annexed buildings, devoted to the aged and infirm members of the establishment. The cemetery, the last resting-place of the brethren, lay to the north side of the nave of the church (H).
It will be seen from the above account that the arrangement of a Cistercian monastery was in accordance with a clearly defined system, and admirably adapted to its purpose. The base court nearest to the outer wall contained the buildings belonging to the functions of the body as agriculturists and employers of labour. Advancing into the inner court, the buildings`devoted to hospitality are found close to the entrance; while those connected with the supply of the material wants of the brethren,—the kitchen, cellars, &c.,—form a court of themselves outside the cloister and quite detached from the church. The church refectory, dormitory and other buildings belonging to the professional life of the brethren surround the great cloister. The small cloister beyond, with its scribes' cells, library, hall for disputations, &c., is the centre of the literary life of the community. The requirements of sickness and old age are carefully provided for in the infirmary cloister and that for the aged and infirm members of the establishment. The same group contains the quarters of the novices.
This stereotyped arrangement is further shown by the illustration of the mother establishment of Citeaux.
Citeaux.
A cross (A), planted on the high road, directs travellers to the gate of the monastery. reached by an avenue of trees. On one side of the gate-house (B) is a long building (C), probably the almonry, with a dormitory above for the lower class of guests. On the other side is a chapel (D). As soon as the porter heard a stranger knock at the gate, he rose, saying, Deo gratias, the opportunity for the exercise of hospitality being regarded as a cause for thankfulness. On opening the door he welcomed the new arrival with a blessing —Benedicite. He fell on his knees before him, and then went to inform the abbot. However important the abbot's occupations might be, he at once hastened to receive him whom heaven had sent. He also threw himself at his guest's feet, and conducted him to the chapel (D) purposely built close to the gate. After a short prayer, the abbot committed the guest to the care of the brother hospitaller, whose duty it was to provide for his wants and conduct the beast on which he might be riding to the stable (F), built adjacent to the inner gatehouse (E). This inner gate conducted into the base court (T), round which were placed the barns, stables, cow-sheds, &c. On the eastern side stood the dormitory of the lay brothers, fratres conversi (G), detached from the cloister, with cellars and storehouses below. At H, also outside the monastic buildings proper, was the abbot's house, and annexed to it the guest-house. For these buildings there was a separate door of entrance into the church (S). The large cloister, with its surrounding arcades, is seen at V. On the south end projects the refectory (K), with its kitchen at I, accessible from the base court. The long gabled building on the east side of the cloister contained on the ground floor the chapter-house and calefactory, with the monks' dormitory above (M), communicating with the south transept of the church. At L was the staircase to the dormitory. The small cloister is at W, where were the carols or cells of the scribes, with the library (P) over, reached by a turret staircase. At R we see a portion of the infirmary. The whole precinct is surrounded by a strong buttressed wall (XXX), pierced with arches,
FIG. 8.—-Bird's-eye view of
A. Cross. H. Abbot's house. R. Infirmary.
B. Gate-house. I. Kitchen. S. Door to the church
C. Almonry. K. Refectory. for the lay brothers.
D. Chapel. L. Staircase to dormitory.
E. Inner gate-house. T. Base court.
F. Stable. M. Dormitory. V. Great cloister.
G. Dormitory of lay N. Church. W. Small cloister.
brethren. P. Library. X. Boundary wall.
through which streams of water are introduced. It will be noticed that the choir of the church is short, and has a square end instead of the usual apse. The tower, in accordance with the Cistercian rule, is very low. The windows throughout accord with the studied simplicity of the order.
Kirkstall Abbey.
The English Cistercian houses, of which there are such extensive and beautiful remains at Fountains, Rievaulx, Kirkstall, Tintern, Netley, &c., were mainly arranged after the same plan, with slight local variations. As an example, we give the groundplan of Kirkstall Abbey. which is one of the best preserved. The church here is of the Cistercian type, with a short chancel of two squares, and transepts with three eastward chapels to each, divided by solid walls (2 2 2). The whole is of the most studied plainness. The windows are unornamented, and the nave has no triforium. The cloister to the south (4) occupies the whole length of the nave. On the east side stands the two-aisled chapter-house (5), between which and the south transept is a small sacristy (3), and on the other side two small apartments, one of which was probably the parlour (6). Beyond this stretches southward the calefactory or day-room of the monks (14). Above this whole range of building runs the monks' dormitory, opening by stairs into the south transept of the church. At the other end were the necessaries. On thc south side of the cloister we have the remains of the old refectory (11), running, as in Benedictine houses, from east to west, and the new refectory (12), which, with the increase of the inmates of the house, superseded it, stretching, as is usual in Cistercian houses, from north to south. Adjacent to this apartment are the remains of the kitchen, pantry and buttery. The arches of the lavatory are to be seen near the refectory entrance. The western side of the cloister is, as usual, occupied by vaulted cellars, supporting on the upper story the dormitory of the lay brothers (8). Extending from the
FIG. 9 Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire
1. Church. 10. Common room.
2. Chapels. 11. Old refectory.
3. Sacristy. 12. New refectory.
4. Cloister. 13. Kitchen court.
5. Chapter-house. 14. Calefactory or day-room.
6. Parlour. 15. Kitchen and offices.
7. Punishment cell (?). 16-19. Uncertain; perhaps offices
8. Cellars, with dormitories for connected with the infirmary.
conversi over.
9. Guest-house. 20. Infirmary or abbot's house.
south-east angle of the main group of buildings are the walls and foundations of a secondary group of considerable extent. These have been identified either with the hospitium or with the abbot's house, but they occupy the position in which the infirmary is more usually found. The hall was a very spacious apartment, measuring 83 ft. in length by 48 ft. 9 in. in breadth, and was divided by two rows of columns. The fish-ponds lay between the monastery and the river to the south. The abbey mill was situated about 80 yards to the north-west. The millpool may be distinctly traced, together with the gowt or mill stream.
Fountains Abbey.
Fountains Abbey, first founded A.D. 1132, is one of the largest and best preserved Cistercian houses in England. But the earlier buildings received considerable additions and alterations in the later period of the order, causing deviations from the strict Cistercian type. The church stands a short distance to the north of the river Skell, the buildings of the abbey stretching down to and even across the stream. We have the cloister (H) to the south, with the three-aisled chapter-house (I) and calefactory (L) opening from its eastern walk, and the refectory (S), with the kitchen (Q) and buttery (T) attached, at right angles to its southern walk.
FIG. 10.—Ground-plan of Fountains Abbey,
A. Nave of the church. N. Cellar. Z. Gate-house.
B. Transept. O. Brewhouse. ABBOT'S HOUSE.
C. Chapels. P. Prisons. 1. Passage
D. Tower. Q. Kitchen. 2. Great hall.
E. Sacristy. R. Offices. 3. Refectory.
F. Choir. S. Refectory. 4. Refectory.
G. Chapel of nine alters. T. Buttery. 5. Storehouse.
H. Cloister. U. Cellars and storehouses. 6. Chapel.
I. Chapter-house. V. Necessary. 7. Kitchen.
K. Base court. W. Infirmary (?). 8. Ashpit.
L. Calefactory. X. Guest-houses. 9. Yard.
M. Water-course. Y. Mill bridge. 10. Kitchen tank.
Parallel with the western walk is an immense vaulted substructure (U), incorrectly styled the cloisters, serving as cellars and store-rooms, and supporting the dormitory of the conversi above. This building extended across the river. At its S.W. corner were the necessaries (V), also built, as usual, above the swiftly flowing stream. The monks' dormitory was in its usual position above the chapter-house, to the south of the transept. As peculiarities of arrangement may be noticed the position of the kitchen (Q), between the refectory and calefactory, and of the infirmary (W) (unless there is some error in its designation) above the river to the west, adjoining the guest-houses (XX). We may also call attention to the greatly lengthened choir, commenced by Abbot John of York, 1203-1211, and carried on by his successor, terminating, like Durham Cathedral, in an eastern transept, the work of Abbot John of Kent, 1220-1247, and to the tower (D), added not long before the dissolution by Abbot Huby, 1494-1526, in a very unusual position at the northern end of the north transept. The abbot's house, the largest and most remarkable example of this class of buildings in the kingdom, stands south to the east of the church and cloister, from which it is divided by the kitchen court (R), surrounded by the ordinary domestic offices. A considerable portion of this house was erected on arches over the Skell. The size and character of this house, probably, at the time of its erection, the most spacious house of a subject in the kingdom, not a castle, bespeaks the wide departure of the Cistercian order from the stern simplicity of the original foundation. The hall (2) was one of the most spacious and magnificent apartments in medieval times, measuring 170 ft. by 70 ft. Like the hall in the castle at Winchester, and Westminster Hall, as originally built, it was divided by 18 pillars and arches, with 3 aisles. Among other apartments, for the designation of which we must refer to the ground-plan, was a domestic oratory or chapel, 46 1/2 ft. by 23 ft. and a kitchen (7), 50 ft. by 38 ft. The whole arrangements and character of the building bespeak the rich and powerful feudal lord, not the humble father of a body of hard-working brethren, bound by vows to a life of poverty and self-denying toil. In the words of Dean Milman, ``the superior, once a man bowed to the earth with humility, care-worn, pale, emaciated, with a coarse habit bound with a cord, with naked feet, had become an abbot on his curvetting palfrey, in rich attire, with his silver cross before him, travelling to take his place amid the lordliest of the realm.'' —(Lat. Christ. vol. iii. p. 330.)

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