Saturday, March 24, 2012

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, by Noah Webster - Full Text

A (named ? in the English, and most commonly „ in other languages). The first letter of the English and of many other alphabets. The capital A of the alphabets of Middle and Western Europe, as also the small letter (a), besides the forms in Italic, black letter, etc., are all descended from the old Latin A, which was borrowed from the Greek Alpha, of the same form; and this was made from the first letter (?) of the Phoenician alphabet, the equivalent of the Hebrew Aleph, and itself from the Egyptian origin. The Aleph was a consonant letter, with a guttural breath sound that was not an element of Greek articulation; and the Greeks took it to represent their vowel Alpha with the „ sound, the Phoenician alphabet having no vowel symbols.
This letter, in English, is used for several different vowel sounds. See Guide to pronunciation, 43Ð74. The regular long a, as in fate, etc., is a comparatively modern sound, and has taken the place of what, till about the early part of the 17th century, was a sound of the quality of „ (as in far).
2. (Mus.) The name of the sixth tone in the model major scale (that in C), or the first tone of the minor scale, which is named after it the scale in A minor. The second string of the violin is tuned to the A in the treble staff. Ð A sharp (A#) is the name of a musical tone intermediate between A and B.Ð A flat (A?) is the name of a tone intermediate between A and G.
A per se (L. per se by itself), one pre‰minent; a nonesuch. [Obs.]
O fair Creseide, the flower and A per se
Of Troy and Greece.
Chaucer.
A (? emph. ?). 1. [Shortened form of an. AS. ? one. See One.] An adjective, commonly called the indefinite article, and signifying one or any, but less emphatically. ½At a birth¸; ½In a word¸; ½At a blow¸. Shak. It is placed before nouns of the singular number denoting an individual object, or a quality individualized, before collective nouns, and also before plural nouns when the adjective few or the phrase great many or good many is interposed; as, a dog, a house, a man; a color; a sweetness; a hundred, a fleet, a regiment; a few persons, a great many days. It is used for an, for the sake of euphony, before words beginning with a consonant sound [for exception of certain words beginning with h, see An]; as, a table, a woman, a year, a unit, a eulogy, a ewe, a oneness, such a one, etc. Formally an was used both before vowels and consonants.
2. [Originally the preposition a (an, on).] In each; to or for each; as, ½twenty leagues a day¸, ½a hundred pounds a year¸, ½a dollar a yard¸, etc.
A (?), prep. [Abbreviated form of an (AS. on). See On.] 1. In; on; at; by. [Obs.] ½A God's name.¸ ½Torn a pieces.¸ ½Stand a tiptoe.¸ ½A Sundays¸ Shak. ½Wit that men have now a days.¸ Chaucer. ½Set them a work.¸ Robynson (More's Utopia)
2. In process of; in the act of; into; to; Ð used with verbal substantives in Ðing which begin with a consonant. This is a shortened form of the preposition an which was used before the vowel sound); as in a hunting, a building, a begging. ½Jacob, when he was a dying¸ Heb. xi. 21. ½We'll a birding together.¸ ½ It was a doing.¸ Shak. ½He burst out a laughing.¸ Macaulay. The hyphen may be used to connect a with the verbal substantive (as, aÐhunting, aÐbilding) or the words may be written separately. This form of expression is now for the most part obsolete, the a being omitted and the verbal substantive treated as a participle.
A. [From AS. of off, from. See Of.] Of. [Obs.] ½The name of John a Gaunt.¸ ½What time a day is it ?¸ Shak. ½It's six a clock.¸ B. Jonson.
A. A barbarous corruption of have, of he, and sometimes of it and of they. ½So would I a done¸ ½A brushes his hat.¸
Shak.
A. An expletive, void of sense, to fill up the meter
A merry heart goes all the day,
Your sad tires in a mileÐa.
Shak.
AÐ. A, as a prefix to English words, is derived from various sources. (1) It frequently signifies on or in (from an, a forms of AS. on), denoting a state, as in afoot, on foot, abed, amiss, asleep, aground, aloft, away (AS. onweg), and analogically, ablaze, atremble, etc. (2) AS. of off, from, as in adown (AS. ofdne off the dun or hill). (3) AS. ? (Goth. usÐ, urÐ, Ger. erÐ), usually giving an intensive force, and sometimes the sense of away, on, back, as in arise, abide, ago. (4) Old English yÐ or iÐ (corrupted from the AS. inseparable particle geÐ, cognate with OHG. gaÐ, giÐ, Goth. gaÐ), which, as a prefix, made no essential addition to the meaning, as in aware. (5) French … (L. ad to), as in abase, achieve. (6) L. a, ab, abs, from, as in avert. (7) Greek insep. prefix ? without, or privative, not, as in abyss, atheist; akin to E. unÐ.
Besides these, there are other sources from which the prefix a takes its origin.
A 1 (?). A registry mark given by underwriters (as at Lloyd's) to ships in firstÐclass condition. Inferior grades are indicated by A 2 and A 3.
A 1 is also applied colloquially to other things to imply superiority; prime; firstÐclass; firstÐrate.
ØAam (?), n. [D. aam, fr. LL. ama; cf. L hama a water bucket, Gr. ?] A Dutch and German measure of liquids, varying in different cities, being at Amsterdam about 41 wine gallons, at Antwerp 36«, at Hamburg 38¬. [Written also Aum and Awm.]
ØAard¶Ðvark· (?), n. [D., earthÐpig.] (Zo”l.) An edentate mammal, of the genus Orycteropus, somewhat resembling a pig, common in some parts of Southern Africa. It burrows in the ground, and feeds entirely on ants, which it catches with its long, slimy tongue.
ØAard¶Ðwolf· (?), n. [D, earthÐwolf] (Zo”l.) A carnivorous quadruped (Proteles Lalandii), of South Africa, resembling the fox and hyena. See Proteles.
AaÏron¶ic (?), AaÏron¶icÏal (?),} a. Pertaining to Aaron, the first high priest of the Jews.
Aar¶on's rod· (?). [See Exodus vii. 9 and Numbers xvii. 8] 1. (Arch.) A rod with one serpent twined around it, thus differing from the caduceus of Mercury, which has two.
2. (Bot.) A plant with a tall flowering stem; esp. the great mullein, or hagÐtaper, and the goldenÐrod.
AbÐ (?). [Latin prep., etymologically the same as E. of, off. See Of.] A prefix in many words of Latin origin. It signifies from, away , separating, or departure, as in abduct, abstract, abscond. See AÐ(6).
ØAb (?), n. [Of Syriac origin.] The fifth month of the Jewish year according to the ecclesiastical reckoning, the eleventh by the civil computation, coinciding nearly with August.
W.Smith.
ØAb¶aÏca (?), n. [The native name.] The ManilaÐhemp plant (Musa textilis); also, its fiber. See Manila hemp under Manila.
AÏbac¶iÏnate (?), v.t. [LL. abacinatus, p.p. of abacinare; ab off+bacinus a basin.] To blind by a redÐhot metal plate held before the eyes. [R.]
AÏbac·iÏna¶tion (?), n. The act of abacinating. [R.]
ØAb·aÏcis¶cus (?), n. [Gr.?, dim of ?. See Abacus.] (Arch.) One of the tiles or squares of a tessellated pavement; an abaculus.
Ab¶aÏcist (?), n. [LL abacista, fr. abacus.] One who uses an abacus in casting accounts; a calculator.
AÏback¶ (?), adv. [Pref. aÐ + back; AS. on ? at, on, or toward the back. See Back.] 1. Toward the back or rear; backward. ½Therewith aback she started.¸
Chaucer.
2. Behind; in the rear.
Knolles.
3. (Naut.) Backward against the mast;Ðsaid of the sails when pressed by the wind.
Totten.
To be taken aback. (a) To be driven backward against the mast;Ðsaid of the sails, also of the ship when the are thus driven. (b) To be suddenly checked, baffled, or discomfited.
Dickens.
Ab¶ack (?), n. An abacus. [Obs.]
B.Jonson.
AbÏac¶tiÏnal (?), a. [L. ab + E. actinal.] (Zo”l.) Pertaining to the surface or end opposite to the mouth in a radiate animal;Ðopposed to actinal. ½The aboral or abactinal area.¸
L.Agassiz.
AbÏac¶tion (?), n. Stealing cattle on a large scale. [Obs.]
AbÏac¶tor (?), n. [L., fr. abigere to drive away; ab+agere to drive.] (Law) One who steals and drives away cattle or beasts by herds or droves. [Obs.]
ØAÏbac¶uÏlus (?), n. ; pl. Abaculi (?). [L., dim. of abacus.] (Arch.) A small tile of glass, marble, or other substance, of various colors, used in making ornamental patterns in mosaic pavements.
Fairholt.
Ab¶aÏcus (?), n.; E. pl. Abacuses ; L. pl. Abaci (?). [L. abacus, abax, ?] 1. A table or tray strewn with sand, anciently used for drawing, calculating, etc. [Obs.]
2. A calculating table or frame; an instrument for performing arithmetical calculations by balls sliding on wires, or counters in grooves, the lowest line representing units, the second line, tens, etc. It is still employed in China.
3. (Arch.) (a) The uppermost member or division of the capital of a column, immediately under the architrave. See Column. (b) A tablet, panel, or compartment in ornamented or mosaic work.
4. A board, tray, or table, divided into perforated compartments, for holding cups, bottles, or the like; a kind of cupboard, buffet, or sideboard.
Abacus harmonicus (Mus.), an ancient diagram showing the structure and disposition of the keys of an instrument.
Crabb.
Ab¶aÏda (?), n. [Pg., the female rhinoceros.] The rhinoceros. [Obs.]
Purchas.
AÏbad¶don (?), n. [Heb. ? destruction, abyss, fr. ? to be lost, to perish.] 1. The destroyer, or angel of the bottomless pit; Ð the same as Apollyon and Asmodeus.
2. Hell; the bottomless pit. [Poetic]
In all her gates, Abaddon rues
Thy bold attempt.
Milton.
AÏbaft¶ (?), prep. [Pref. aÐon + OE. baft, baften, biaften, AS.?; be by + ? behind. See After, Aft, By.] (Naut.) Behind; toward the stern from; as, abaft the wheelhouse.
Abaft the beam. See under Beam.
AÏbaft¶, adv. (Naut.) Toward the stern; aft; as, to go abaft.
AÏbai¶sance (?), n. [For obeisance; confused with F. abaisser, E. abase] Obeisance. [Obs.]
Jonson.
AÏbai¶ser (?), n. Ivory black or animal charcoal.
Weale.
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AÏbaist¶ (?), p.p. Abashed; confounded; discomfited. [Obs.] Chaucer. AbÏal¶ienÏate (?), v.t. [L. abalienatus, p.p. of abalienare; ab + alienus foreign, alien. See Alien.] 1. (Civil Law) To transfer the title of from one to another; to alienate. 2. To estrange; to withdraw. [Obs.] 3. To cause alienation of (mind). Sandys. AbÏal·ienÏa¶tion (?), n. [L. abalienatio: cf. F. abalianation.] The act of abalienating; alienation; estrangement. [Obs.] ØAb·aÏlo¶ne (?), n. (Zo”l.) A univalve mollusk of the genus Haliotis. The shell is lined with motherÐofÐpearl, and used for ornamental purposes; the seaÐear. Several large species are found on the coast of California, clinging closely to the rocks. AÏband¶ (?), v.t. [Contracted from abandon.] 1. To abandon. [Obs.] Enforced the kingdom to aband. Spenser. 2. To banish; to expel. [Obs.] Mir. for Mag. AÏban¶don (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abandoned (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Abandoning .] [OF. abandoner, F.abandonner; a (L. ad)+bandon permission, authority, LL. bandum, bannum, public proclamation, interdiction, bannire to proclaim, summon: of Germanic origin; cf. Goth. bandwjan to show by signs, to designate OHG. banproclamation. The word meant to proclaim, put under a ban, put under control; hence, as in OE., to compel, subject, or to leave in the control of another, and hence, to give up. See Ban.] 1. To cast or drive out; to banish; to expel; to reject. [Obs.] That he might … abandon them from him. Udall. Being all this time abandoned from your bed. Shak. 2. To give up absolutely; to forsake entirely ; to renounce utterly; to relinquish all connection with or concern on; to desert, as a person to whom one owes allegiance or fidelity; to quit; to surrender. Hope was overthrown, yet could not be abandoned. I. Taylor. 3. Reflexively : To give (one's self) up without attempt at selfÐcontrol ; to yield (one's self) unrestrainedly ; Ð often in a bad sense. He abandoned himself … to his favorite vice. Macaulay. 4. (Mar. Law) To relinquish all claim to; Ð used when an insured person gives up to underwriters all claim to the property covered by a policy, which may remain after loss or damage by a peril insured against. Syn.Ð To give up; yield; forego; cede; surrender; resign; abdicate; quit; relinquish; renounce; desert; forsake; leave; retire; withdraw from. Ð To Abandon, Desert, Forsake. These words agree in representing a person as giving up or leaving some object, but differ as to the mode of doing it. The distinctive sense of abandon is that of giving up a thing absolutely and finally; as, to abandon one's friends, places, opinions, good or evil habits, a hopeless enterprise, a shipwrecked vessel. Abandon is more widely applicable than forsake or desert. The Latin original of desert appears to have been originally applied to the case of deserters from military service. Hence, the verb, when used of persons in the active voice, has usually or always a bad sense, implying some breach of fidelity, honor, etc., the leaving of something which the person should rightfully stand by and support; as, to desert one's colors, to desert one's post, to desert one's principles or duty. When used in the passive, the sense is not necessarily bad; as, the fields were deserted, a deserted village, deserted halls. Forsake implies the breaking off of previous habit, association, personal connection, or that the thing left had been familiar or frequented; as, to forsake old friends, to forsake the paths of rectitude, the blood forsook his cheeks. It may be used either in a good or in a bad sense. AÏban¶don, n. [F. abandon. fr. abandonner. See Abandon, v.] Abandonment; relinquishment. [Obs.] ØA·ban·don¶ (?), n. [F. See Abandon.] A complete giving up to natural impulses; freedom from artificial constraint; careless freedom or ease. AÏban¶doned (?), a. 1. Forsaken, deserted. ½Your abandoned streams.¸ Thomson. 2. SelfÐabandoned, or given up to vice; extremely wicked, or sinning without restraint; irreclaimably wicked ; as, an abandoned villain. Syn.Ð Profligate; dissolute; corrupt; vicious; depraved; reprobate; wicked; unprincipled; graceless; vile. Ð Abandoned, Profligate, Reprobate. These adjectives agree in expressing the idea of great personal depravity. Profligate has reference to open and shameless immoralities, either in private life or political conduct; as, a profligate court, a profligate ministry. Abandoned is stronger, and has reference to the searing of conscience and hardening of heart produced by a man's giving himself wholly up to iniquity; as, a man of abandoned character. Reprobate describes the condition of one who has become insensible to reproof, and who is morally abandoned and lost beyond hope of recovery. God gave them over to a reprobate mind. Rom. i. 28. AÏban¶donedÏly, adv. Unrestrainedly. AÏban·donÏee¶ (?), n. (Law) One to whom anything is legally abandoned. AÏban¶donÏer (?), n. One who abandons. Beau. & Fl. AÏban¶donÏment (?), n. [Cf. F. abandonnement.] 1. The act of abandoning, or the state of being abandoned; total desertion; relinquishment. The abandonment of the independence of Europe. Burke. 2. (Mar. Law) The relinquishment by the insured to the underwriters of what may remain of the property insured after a loss or damage by a peril insured against. 3. (Com. Law) (a) The relinquishment of a right, claim, or privilege, as to mill site, etc. (b) The voluntary leaving of a person to whom one is bound by a special relation, as a wife, husband, or child; desertion. 4. Careless freedom or ease; abandon. [R.] Carlyle. ØAÏban¶Ïdum (?), n. [LL. See Abandon.] (Law) Anything forfeited or confiscated. Ab¶aÏnet (?), n. See Abnet. ØAÏban¶ga (?), n. [Name given by the negroes in the island of St. Thomas.] A West Indian palm; also the fruit of this palm, the seeds of which are used as a remedy for diseases of the chest. Ab·anÏna¶tion (?), Ab·anÏnition (?),} n. [LL. abannatio; ad + LL. bannire to banish.] (Old Law) Banishment. [Obs.] Bailey. Ab·arÏtic·uÏla¶tion (?), n. [L. ab + E. articulation : cf. F. abarticulation . See Article.] (Anat.) Articulation, usually that kind of articulation which admits of free motion in the joint; diarthrosis. Coxe. AÏbase¶ (?), v.t. [imp.&p.p. Abased (?); p.pr. & vb. n. Abasing.] [F. abaisser, LL. abassare, abbassare ; ad + bassare, fr. bassus low. See Base, a.] 1. To lower or depress; to throw or cast down; as, to abase the eye. [Archaic] Bacon. Saying so, he abased his lance. Shelton. 2. To cast down or reduce low or lower, as in rank, office, condition in life, or estimation of worthiness; to depress; to humble; to degrade. Whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased. Luke xiv.ll. Syn.Ð To Abase, Debase, Degrade. These words agree in the idea of bringing down from a higher to a lower state. Abase has reference to a bringing down in condition or feelings; as to abase one's self before God. Debase has reference to the bringing down of a thing in purity, or making it base. It is, therefore, always used in a bad sense, as, to debase the coin of the kingdom, to debase the mind by vicious indulgence, to debase one's style by coarse or vulgar expressions. Degrade has reference to a bringing down from some higher grade or from some standard. Thus, a priest is degraded from the clerical office. When used in a moral sense, it denotes a bringing down in character and just estimation; as, degraded by intemperance, a degrading employment, etc. ½Art is degraded when it is regarded only as a trade.¸ AÏbased¶ (?), a. 1. Lowered; humbled. 2. (Her.) [F. abaiss‚.] Borne lower than usual, as a fess; also, having the ends of the wings turned downward towards the point of the shield. AÏbas¶edÏly (?), adv. Abjectly; downcastly. AÏbase¶ment (?), n. [Cf. F. abaissement.] The act of abasing, humbling, or bringing low; the state of being abased or humbled; humiliation. AÏbas¶er (?), n. He who, or that which, abases. AÏbash¶ (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abashed (?); p.pr. & vb. n. Abashing.] [OE. abaissen, abaisshen, abashen, OF.esbahir, F. ‚bahir, to astonish, fr. L. ex + the interjection bah, expressing astonishment. In OE. somewhat confused with abase. Cf. Finish.] To destroy the selfÐpossession of; to confuse or confound, as by exciting suddenly a consciousness of guilt, mistake, or inferiority; to put to shame; to disconcert; to discomfit. Abashed, the devil stood, And felt how awful goodness is. Milton. He was a man whom no check could abash. Macaulay. Syn.Ð To confuse; confound; disconcert; shame. Ð To Abash, Confuse, Confound. Abash is a stronger word than confuse, but not so strong as confound. We are abashed when struck either with sudden shame or with a humbling sense of inferiority; as, Peter was abashed in the presence of those who are greatly his superiors. We are confused when, from some unexpected or startling occurrence, we lose clearness of thought and selfÐpossession. Thus, a witness is often confused by a severe crossÐexamination; a timid person is apt to be confused in entering a room full of strangers. We are confounded when our minds are overwhelmed, as it were, by something wholly unexpected, amazing, dreadful, etc., so that we have nothing to say. Thus, a criminal is usually confounded at the discovery of his guilt. Satan stood Awhile as mute, confounded what to say. Milton. AÏbash¶edÏly (?), adv. In an abashed manner. AÏbash¶ment (?), n. [Cf. F. ‚bahissement.] The state of being abashed; confusion from shame. ØAÏbas¶si (?), ØAÏbas¶sis (?),} n. [Ar.& Per.?, belonging to Abas (a king of Persia).] A silver coin of Persia, worth about twenty cents. AÏbat¶aÏble (?), a. Capable of being abated; as, an abatable writ or nuisance. AÏbate¶ (?), v.t. [imp.& p.p. Abated, p.pr.& vb.n. Abating.] [OF. abatre to beat down, F. abattre, LL. abatere; ab or ad + batere, battere (popular form for L. batuere to beat). Cf. Bate, Batter.] 1. To beat down; to overthrow. [Obs.] The King of Scots … sore abated the walls. Edw.Hall. 2. To bring down or reduce from a higher to a lower state, number, or degree; to lessen; to diminish; to contract; to moderate; toto cut short; as, to abate a demand; to abate pride, zeal, hope. His eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated. Deut.xxxiv.7. 3. To deduct; to omit; as, to abate something from a price. Nine thousand parishes, abating the odd hundreds. Fuller. 4. To blunt. [Obs.] To abate the edge of envy. Bacon. 5. To reduce in estimation; to deprive. [Obs.] She hath abated me of half my train. Shak. 6. (Law) (a) To bring entirely down or put an end to; to do away with; as, to abate a nuisance, to abate a writ. (b) (Eng. Law) To diminish; to reduce. Legacies are liable to be abated entirely or in proportion, upon a deficiency of assets. To abate a tax, to remit it either wholly or in part. AÏbate¶ (?), v.i. [See Abate, v.t.] 1. To decrease, or become less in strength or violence; as, pain abates, a storm abates. The fury of Glengarry … rapidly abated. Macaulay. 2. To be defeated, or come to naught; to fall through; to fail; as, a writ abates. To abate into a freehold, To abate in lands (Law), to enter into a freehold after the death of the last possessor, and before the heir takes possession. See Abatement, 4. Syn.Ð To subside; decrease; intermit; decline; diminish; lessen. Ð To Abate, Subside. These words, as here compared, imply a coming down from some previously raised or exited state. Abate expresses this in respect to degrees, and implies a diminution of force or of intensity; as, the storm abates, the cold abates, the force of the wind abates; or, the wind abates, a fever abates. Subside (to settle down) has reference to a previous state of agitation or commotion; as, the waves subside after a storm, the wind subsides into a calm. When the words are used figuratively, the same distinction should be observed. If we conceive of a thing as having different degrees of intensity or strength, the word to be used is abate. Thus we say, a man's anger abates, the ardor of one's love abates, ½Winter rage abates¸. But if the image be that of a sinking down into quiet from preceding excitement or commotion, the word to be used is subside; as, the tumult of the people subsides, the public mind subsided into a calm. The same is the case with those emotions which are tumultuous in their nature; as, his passion subsides, his joy quickly subsided, his grief subsided into a pleasing melancholy. Yet if, in such cases, we were thinking of the degree of violence of the emotion, we might use abate; as, his joy will abate in the progress of time; and so in other instances. AÏbate (?), n. Abatement. [Obs.] Sir T.Browne. AÏbate¶ment (?), n. [OF. abatement , F. abattement.] 1. The act of abating, or the state of being abated; a lessening, diminution, or reduction; removal or putting an end to; as, the abatement of a nuisance is the suppression thereof. 2. The amount abated; that which is taken away by way of reduction; deduction; decrease; a rebate or discount allowed. 3. (Her.) A mark of dishonor on an escutcheon. 4. (Law) The entry of a stranger, without right, into a freehold after the death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee. Blackstone. Defense in abatement, Plea in abatement, (Law), plea to the effect that from some formal defect ( e.g. misnomer, want of jurisdiction) the proceedings should be abated. AÏbat¶er (?), n. One who, or that which, abates. Ab¶aÏtis, Aba¶tÏtis,} (?) n. [F. abatis, abattis, mass of things beaten or cut down, fr. abattre. See Abate.] (Fort.) A means of defense formed by felled trees, the ends of whose branches are sharpened and directed outwards, or against the enemy. Ab¶aÏtised (?), a. Provided with an abatis. AÏba¶tor (?), n. (Law) (a) One who abates a nuisance. (b) A person who, without right, enters into a freehold on the death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee. Blackstone. ØA·bat·toir¶ (?), n.; pl. Abattoirs (?). [F., fr. abattre to beat down. See Abate.] A public slaughterhouse for cattle, sheep, etc. Ab¶aÏture (?), n. [F. abatture, fr. abattre. See Abate.] Grass and sprigs beaten or trampled down by a stag passing through them. Crabb. ØA·bat·voix¶ (?), n. [F. abattre to beat down + voix voice.] The soundingÐboard over a pulpit or rostrum. AbÏawed¶ (?), p.p. [Perh. p.p. of a verb fr. OF. abaubir to frighten, disconcert, fr. L. ad + balbus stammering.] Astonished; abashed. [Obs.] Chaucer. AbÏax¶iÏal (?), AbÏax¶ile (?),} a. [L. ab + axis axle.] (Bot.) Away from the axis or central line; eccentric. Balfour. AÏbay¶ (?), n. [OF. abay barking.] Barking; baying of dogs upon their prey. See Bay. [Obs.] Abb (?), n. [AS. ?; pref. aÐ + web. See Web.] Among weaves, yarn for the warp. Hence, abb wool is wool for the abb. Ab¶ba (?), n. [Syriac ? father. See Abbot.] Father; religious superior; Ð in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops to the patriarch. Ab¶baÏcy (?), n.; pl. Abbacies (?). [L. abbatia, fr. abbas, abbatis, abbot. See Abbey.] The dignity, estate, or jurisdiction of an abbot. AbÏba¶tial (?), a. [LL. abbatialis : cf. F. abbatial.] Belonging to an abbey; as, abbatial rights. AbÏbat¶icÏal (?), a. Abbatial. [Obs.] ØAb¶b‚· (?), n.[F. abb‚. See Abbot.] The French word answering to the English abbot, the head of an abbey; but commonly a title of respect given in France to every one vested with the ecclesiastical habit or dress. Littr‚. µ After the 16th century, the name was given, in social parlance, to candidates for some priory or abbey in the gift of the crown. Many of these aspirants became well known in literary and fashionable life. By further extension, the name came to be applied to unbeneficed secular ecclesiastics generally. Ab¶bess (?), n. [OF.abaesse, abeesse, F. abbesse, L. abbatissa, fem. of abbas, abbatis, abbot. See Abbot.] A female superior or governess of a nunnery, or convent of nuns, having the same authority over the nuns which the abbots have over the monks. See Abbey. Ab¶bey (?), n.; pl. Abbeys (?). [OF. aba‹e, F. abbaye, L. abbatia, fr. abbas abbot. See Abbot.] 1. A monastery or society of persons of either sex, secluded from the world and devoted to religion and celibacy; also, the monastic building or buildings. µ The men are called monks, and governed by an abbot; the women are called nuns, and governed by an abbess. 2. The church of a monastery.
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In London, the Abbey means Westminster Abbey, and in Scotland, the precincts of the Abbey of Holyrood. The name is also retained for a private residence on the site of an abbey; as, Newstead Abbey, the residence of Lord Byron.
Syn.Ð Monastery; convent; nunnery; priory; cloister. See Cloister.
Ab¶bot (?), n. [AS. abbod, abbad, L. abbas, abbatis, Gr. ?, fr. Syriac ? father. Cf. Abba, Abb.]
1. The superior or head of an abbey.
2. One of a class of bishops whose sees were formerly abbeys.
Encyc.Brit.
Abbot of the people, a title formerly given to one of the chief magistrates in Genoa. Ð Abbot of Misrule (or Lord of Misrule), in medi‘val times, the master of revels, as at Christmas; in Scotland called the Abbot of Unreason.
Encyc.Brit.
Ab¶botÏship (?), n. [Abbot + Ïship.] The state or office of an abbot.
AbÏbre¶viÏate (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abbreviated (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Abbreviating.] [L. abbreviatus, p.p. of abbreviare; ad + breviare to shorten, fr. brevis short. See Abridge.] 1. To make briefer; to shorten; to abridge; to reduce by contraction or omission, especially of words written or spoken.
It is one thing to abbreviate by contracting, another by cutting off.
Bacon.
2. (Math.) To reduce to lower terms, as a fraction.
AbÏbre¶viÏate (?), a. [L. abbreviatus, p.p.] 1. Abbreviated; abridged; shortened. [R.] ½The abbreviate form.¸
Earle.
2. (Biol.) Having one part relatively shorter than another or than the ordinary type.
AbÏbre¶viÏate, n. An abridgment. [Obs.]
Elyot.
AbÏbre¶viÏa·ted (?), a. Shortened; relatively short; abbreviate.
AbÏbre·viÏa¶tion (?), n. [LL. abbreviatio: cf. F. abbr‚viation.] 1. The act of shortening, or reducing.
2. The result of abbreviating; an abridgment.
Tylor.
3. The form to which a word or phrase is reduced by contraction and omission; a letter or letters, standing for a word or phrase of which they are a part; as, Gen. for Genesis; U.S.A. for United States of America.
4. (Mus.) One dash, or more, through the stem of a note, dividing it respectively into quavers, semiquavers, or demiÐsemiquavers.
Moore.
AbÏbre¶viÏa·tor (?), n. [LL.: cf. F. abbr‚viateur.] 1. One who abbreviates or shortens.
2. One of a college of seventyÐtwo officers of the papal court whose duty is to make a short minute of a decision on a petition, or reply of the pope to a letter, and afterwards expand the minute into official form.
AbÏbre¶viÏaÏtoÏry (?), a. Serving or tending to abbreviate; shortening; abridging.
AbÏbre¶viÏaÏture (?), n. 1. An abbreviation; an abbreviated state or form. [Obs.]
2. An abridgment; a compendium or abstract.
This is an excellent abbreviature of the whole duty of a Christian.
Jer. Taylor.
Abb¶ wool (?). See Abb.
A B C¶ (?). 1. The first three letters of the alphabet, used for the whole alphabet.
2. A primer for teaching the alphabet and first elements of reading. [Obs.]
3. The simplest rudiments of any subject; as, the A B Cÿof finance.
A B C book, a primer.
Shak.
ØAb¶dal (?), n. [Ar. badÆl, pl. abd¾l, a substitute, a good, religious man, saint, fr. badalaÿto change, substitute.] A religious devotee or dervish in Persia.
AbÏde¶riÏan (?), a. [From Abdera, a town in Thrace, of which place Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher, was a native.] Given to laughter; inclined to foolish or incessant merriment.
AbÏde¶rite (?), n. [L. Abderita, Abderites, fr. Gr. '?.] An inhabitant of Abdera, in Thrace.
The Abderite, Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher.
Ab¶dest (?), n. [Per. ¾bdast; ab water + dast hand.] Purification by washing the hands before prayer; Ð a Mohammedan rite.
Heyse.
Ab¶diÏcaÏble (?), a. Capable of being abdicated.
Ab¶diÏcant (?), a. [L. abdicans, p.pr. of abdicare.] Abdicating; renouncing; Ð followed by of.
Monks abdicant of their orders.
Whitlock.
Ab¶diÏcant, n. One who abdicates.
Smart.
Ab¶diÏcate (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abdicated (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Abdicating.] [L. abdicatus, p.p. of abdicare; ab + dicare to proclaim, akin to dicere to say. See Diction.] 1. To surrender or relinquish, as sovereign power; to withdraw definitely from filling or exercising, as a high office, station, dignity; as, to abdicate the throne, the crown, the papacy.
µ The word abdicate was held to mean, in the case of James II., to abandon without a formal surrender.
The crossÐbearers abdicated their service.
Gibbon.
2. To renounce; to relinquish; Ð said of authority, a trust, duty, right, etc.
He abdicates all right to be his own governor.
Burke.
The understanding abdicates its functions.
Froude.
3. To reject; to cast off. [Obs.]
Bp. Hall.
4. (Civil Law) To disclaim and expel from the family, as a father his child; to disown; to disinherit.
Syn. - To give up; quit; vacate; relinquish; forsake; abandon; resign; renounce; desert. Ð To Abdicate, Resign. Abdicate commonly expresses the act of a monarch in voluntary and formally yielding up sovereign authority; as, to abdicate the government. Resign is applied to the act of any person, high or low, who gives back an office or trust into the hands of him who conferred it. Thus, a minister resigns, a military officer resigns, a clerk resigns. The expression, ½The king resigned his crown,¸ sometimes occurs in our later literature, implying that he held it from his people. Ð There are other senses of resign which are not here brought into view.
Ab¶diÏcate (?), v.i. To relinquish or renounce a throne, or other high office or dignity.
Though a king may abdicate for his own person, he cannot abdicate for the monarchy.
Burke.
Ab·diÏca¶tion (?), n. [L. abdicatio: cf. F. abdication.] The act of abdicating; the renunciation of a high office, dignity, or trust, by its holder; commonly the voluntary renunciation of sovereign power; as, abdication of the throne, government, power, authority.
Ab¶diÏcaÏtive (?), a. [L. abdicativus.] Causing, or implying, abdication. [R.]
Bailey.
Ab¶diÏca·tor (?), n. One who abdicates.
Ab¶diÏtive (?), a. [L. abditivus, fr. abdereÿto hide.] Having the quality of hiding. [R.]
Bailey.
Ab¶diÏtoÏry (?), n. [L. abditorium.] A place for hiding or preserving articles of value.
Cowell.
AbÏdo¶men (?), n. [L. abdomen (a word of uncertain etymol.): cf. F. abdomen.] 1. (Anat.) The belly, or that part of the body between the thorax and the pelvis. Also, the cavity of the belly, which is lined by the peritoneum, and contains the stomach, bowels, and other viscera. In man, often restricted to the part between the diaphragm and the commencement of the pelvis, the remainder being called the pelvic cavity.
2. (Zo”l.) The posterior section of the body, behind the thorax, in insects, crustaceans, and other Arthropoda.
AbÏdom¶iÏnal (?), a. [Cf. F. abdominal.] 1. Of or pertaining to the abdomen; ventral; as, the abdominal regions, muscles, cavity.
2. (Zo”l.) Having abdominal fins; belonging to the Abdominales; as, abdominal fishes.
Abdominal ring (Anat.), a fancied ringlike opening on each side of the abdomen, external and superior to the pubes; Ð called also inguinal ring.
AbÏdom¶iÏnal, n.; E. pl. Abdominals, L. pl. Abdominales. A fish of the group Abdominales.
ØAbÏdom·iÏna¶les (?), n. pl. [NL., masc. pl.] (Zo”l.) A group including the greater part of freshÐwater fishes, and many marine ones, having the ventral fins under the abdomen behind the pectorals.
ØAbÏdom·iÏna¶liÏa (?), n. pl. [NL., neut. pl.] (Zo”l.) A group of cirripeds having abdominal appendages.
AbÏdom·iÏnos¶coÏpy (?), n. [L. abdomen + Gr. ? to examine.] (Med.) Examination of the abdomen to detect abdominal disease.
AbÏdom·iÏnoÏthoÏrac¶ic (?), a. Relating to the abdomen and the thorax, or chest.
AbÏdom¶iÏnous (?), a. Having a protuberant belly; potÐbellied.
Gorgonius sits, abdominous and wan,
Like a fat squab upon a Chinese fan.
Cowper.
AbÏduce¶ (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abduced (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Abducing.] [L. abducereÿto lead away; ab + ducere to lead. See Duke, and cf. Abduct.] To draw or conduct away; to withdraw; to draw to a different part. [Obs. or Archaic]
If we abduce the eye unto corner, the object will not duplicate.
Sir T.Browne.
AbÏdu¶cent (?), a. [L. abducens, p.pr. of abducere.] (Physiol.) Drawing away from a common center, or out of the median line; as, the abducent muscles. Opposed to adducent.
AbÏduct¶ (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abducted (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Abducting.] [L. abductus, p.p. of abducere. See Abduce.] 1. To take away surreptitiously by force; to carry away (a human being) wrongfully and usually by violence; to kidnap.
2. To draw away, as a limb or other part, from its ordinary position.
AbÏduc¶tion (?), n. [L. abductio: cf. F. abduction.] 1. The act of abducing or abducting; a drawing apart; a carrying away.
Roget.
2. (Physiol.) The movement which separates a limb or other part from the axis, or middle line, of the body.
3. (Law) The wrongful, and usually the forcible, carrying off of a human being; as, the abduction of a child, the abduction of an heiress.
4. (Logic) A syllogism or form of argument in which the major is evident, but the minor is only probable.
AbÏduc¶tor (?), n. [NL.] 1. One who abducts.
2. (Anat.) A muscle which serves to draw a part out, or form the median line of the body; as, the abductor oculi, which draws the eye outward.
AÏbeam¶ (?), adv. [Pref. aÏ + beam.] (Naut.) On the beam, that is, on a line which forms a right angle with the ship's keel; opposite to the center of the ship's side.
AÏbear¶ (?), v.t. [AS. ¾beran; pref. ¾Ï + beran to bear.] 1. To bear; to behave. [Obs.]
So did the faery knight himself abear.
Spenser.
2. To put up with; to endure. [Prov.]
Dickens.
AÏbear¶ance (?), n. Behavior. [Obs.]
Blackstone.
AÏbear¶ing, n. Behavior. [Obs.]
Sir. T.More.
A·beÏceÏda¶riÏan (?), n. [L. abecedarius. A word from the first four letters of the alphabet.] 1. One who is learning the alphabet; hence, a tyro.
2. One engaged in teaching the alphabet.
Wood.
A·beÏceÏda¶riÏan, A·beÏce¶daÏry (?), } a. Pertaining to, or formed by, the letters of the alphabet; alphabetic; hence, rudimentary.
Abecedarian psalms, hymns, etc., compositions in which (like the 119th psalm in Hebrew) distinct portions or verses commence with successive letters of the alphabet.
Hook.
A·beÏce¶daÏry (?), n. A primer; the first principle or rudiment of anything. [R.]
Fuller.
AÏbed¶ (?), adv. [Pref. aÏ in, on + bed.] 1. In bed, or on the bed.
Not to be abed after midnight.
Shak.
2. To childbed (in the phrase ½brought abed,¸ that is, delivered of a child).
Shak.
AÏbeg¶ge (?). Same as Aby. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
AÏbele¶ (?), n. [D. abeel (abeelÐboom), OF. abel, aubel, fr. a dim. of L. albus white.] The white polar (Populus alba).
Six abeles i' the churchyard grow.
Mrs. Browning.
AÏbel¶iÏan (?), A¶belÏite (?), A·belÏo¶niÏan (?), } n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect in Africa (4th century), mentioned by St. Augustine, who states that they married, but lived in continence, after the manner, as they pretended, of Abel.
A¶belÏmosk· (?), n. [NL. abelmoschus, fr. Ar. abuÐlÐmisk father of musk, i.e., producing musk. See Musk.] (Bot.) An evergreen shrub (Hibiscus Ð formerly AbelmoschusÐmoschatus), of the East and West Indies and Northern Africa, whose musky seeds are used in perfumery and to flavor coffee; Ð sometimes called musk mallow.
Ab· erÐdeÐvine¶ (?), n. (Zo”l.) The European siskin (Carduelis spinus), a small green and yellow finch, related to the goldfinch.
AbÏerr¶ (?), v.i. [L. aberrare. See Aberrate.] To wander; to stray. [Obs.]
Sir T.Browne.
AbÏer¶rance (?), AbÏer¶ranÏcy (?), } n. State of being aberrant; a wandering from the right way; deviation from truth, rectitude, etc.
Aberrancy of curvature (Geom.), the deviation of a curve from a circular form.
AbÏer¶rant (?), a. [L. aberrans, Ïrantis, p.pr. of aberrare.] See Aberr.] 1. Wandering; straying from the right way.
2. (Biol.) Deviating from the ordinary or natural type; exceptional; abnormal.
The more aberrant any form is, the greater must have been the number of connecting forms which, on my theory, have been exterminated.
Darwin.
Ab¶erÏrate (?), v.i. [L. aberratus, p.pr. of aberrare; ab + errare to wander. See Err.] To go astray; to diverge. [R.]
Their own defective and aberrating vision.
De Quincey.
Ab·erÏra¶tion (?), n. [L. aberratio: cf. F. aberration. See Aberrate.] 1. The act of wandering; deviation, especially from truth or moral rectitude, from the natural state, or from a type. ½The aberration of youth.¸ Hall. ½Aberrations from theory.¸ Burke.
2. A partial alienation of reason. ½Occasional aberrations of intellect.¸ Lingard.
Whims, which at first are the aberrations of a single brain, pass with heat into epidemic form.
I.Taylor.
3. (Astron.) A small periodical change of position in the stars and other heavenly bodies, due to the combined effect of the motion of light and the motion of the observer; called annual aberration, when the observer's motion is that of the earth in its orbit, and dairy or diurnal aberration, when of the earth on its axis; amounting when greatest, in the former case, to 20.4'', and in the latter, to 0.3''. Planetaryÿaberration is that due to the motion of light and the motion of the planet relative to the earth.
4. (Opt.) The convergence to different foci, by a lens or mirror, of rays of light emanating from one and the same point, or the deviation of such rays from a single focus; called spherical aberration, when due to the spherical form of the lens or mirror, such form giving different foci for central and marginal rays; and chromatic aberration, when due to different refrangibilities of the colored rays of the spectrum, those of each color having a distinct focus.
5. (Physiol.) The passage of blood or other fluid into parts not appropriate for it.
6. (Law) The producing of an unintended effect by the glancing of an instrument, as when a shot intended for A glances and strikes B.
Syn. - Insanity; lunacy; madness; derangement; alienation; mania; dementia; hallucination; illusion; delusion. See Insanity.
Ab·erÏra¶tionÏal (?), a. Characterized by aberration.
Ab·eÏrun¶cate (?), v.t. [L. aberuncare, for aberruncare. See Averruncate.] To weed out. [Obs.]
Bailey.
Ab·eÏrun¶caÏtor (?), n. A weeding machine.
AÏbet¶ (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abetted (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Abetting.] [OF. abeter; a (L. ad) + beter to bait (as a bear), fr. Icel. beita to set dogs on, to feed, originally, to cause to bite, fr. Icel. bÆtaÿto bite, hence to bait, to incite. See Bait, Bet.] 1. To instigate or encourage by aid or countenance; Ð used in a bad sense of persons and acts; as, to abet an illÐdoer; to abet one in his wicked courses; to abet vice; to abet an insurrection. ½The whole tribe abets the villany.¸
South.
Would not the fool abet the stealth,
Who rashly thus exposed his wealth?
Gay.
2. To support, uphold, or aid; to maintain; Ð in a good sense. [Obs.]r duty is urged, and our confidence abetted.
Jer. Taylor.
3. (Law)To contribute, as an assistant or instigator, to the commission of an offense.
Syn. - To incite; instigate; set on; egg on; foment; advocate; countenance; encourage; second; uphold; aid; assist; support; sustain; back; connive at.
AÏbet¶ (?), n. [OF. abet, fr. abeter.] Act of abetting; aid. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
AÏbet¶ment (?), n. The act of abetting; as, an abetment of treason, crime, etc.
AÏbet¶tal (?), n. Abetment. [R.]
<— p. 4 —>
AÏbet¶ter, AÏbetÏtor } (#), n. One who abets; an instigator of an offense or an offender.µ The form abettor is the legal term and also in general use. Syn. Ð Abettor, Accessory, Accomplice. These words denote different degrees of complicity in some deed or crime. An abettor is one who incites or encourages to the act, without sharing in its performance. An accessory supposes a principal offender. One who is neither the chief actor in an offense, nor present at its performance, but accedes to or becomes involved in its guilt, either by some previous or subsequent act, as of instigating, encouraging, aiding, or concealing, etc., is an accessory. An accomplice is one who participates in the commission of an offense, whether as principal or accessory. Thus in treason, there are no abettors or accessories, but all are held to be principals or accomplices. Ab·eÏvac¶uÏa¶tion (#), n. [Pref. abÏ + evacuation.] (Med.) A partial evacuation. Mayne. AÏbey¶ance (#), n. [OF. abeance expectation, longing; a (L. ad) + baer, beer, to gape, to look with open mouth, to expect, F. bayer, LL. badare to gape.] 1. (Law) Expectancy; condition of being undetermined.µ When there is no person in existence in whom an inheritance (or a dignity) can vest, it is said to be in abeyance, that is, in expectation; the law considering it as always potentially existing, and ready to vest whenever a proper owner appears. Blackstone. 2. Suspension; temporary suppression. Keeping the sympathies of love and admiration in a dormant state, or state of abeyance. De Quincey. AÏbey¶anÏcy (#), n. Abeyance. [R.] Hawthorne. AÏbey¶ant (#), a. Being in a state of abeyance. Ø Ab¶hal (#), n. The berries of a species of cypress in the East Indies. AbÏhom¶iÏnaÏble (#), a. Abominable. [A false orthography anciently used; h was foisted into various words; hence abholish, for abolish, etc.] This is abhominable, which he [Don Armado] would call abominable. Shak. Love's Labor's Lost, v. 1. AbÏhom·iÏnal (#), a. [L. ab away from + homo, hominis, man.] Inhuman. [Obs.] Fuller. AbÏhor¶ (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abhorred (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Abhorring.] [L. abhorrere; ab + horrere to bristle, shiver, shudder: cf. F. abhorrer. See Horrid.] 1. To shrink back with shuddering from; to regard with horror or detestation; to feel excessive repugnance toward; to detest to extremity; to loathe. Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good. Rom. xii. 9. 2. To fill with horror or disgust. [Obs.] It doth abhor me now I speak the word. Shak. 3. (Canon Law) To protest against; to reject solemnly. [Obs.] I utterly abhor, yea, from my soul Refuse you for my judge. Shak. Syn. Ð To hate; detest; loathe; abominate. See Hate. AbÏhor¶, v. i. To shrink back with horror, disgust, or dislike; to be contrary or averse; Ð with from. [Obs.] ½To abhor from those vices.¸ Udall. Which is utterly abhorring from the end of all law. Milton. AbÏhor¶rence (#), n. Extreme hatred or detestation; the feeling of utter dislike. AbÏhor¶renÏcy (#), n. Abhorrence. [Obs.] Locke. AbÏhor¶rent (#), a. [L. abhorens, Ïrentis, p. pr. of abhorrere.] 1. Abhorring; detesting; having or showing abhorrence; loathing; hence, strongly opposed to; as, abhorrent thoughts. The persons most abhorrent from blood and treason. Burke. The arts of pleasure in despotic courts I spurn abhorrent. Clover. 2. Contrary or repugnant; discordant; inconsistent; Ð followed by to. ½Injudicious profanation, so abhorrent to our stricter principles.¸ Gibbon. 3. Detestable. ½Pride, abhorrent as it is.¸ I. Taylor. AbÏhor¶rentÏly, adv. With abhorrence. AbÏhor¶rer (#), n. One who abhors. Hume. AbÏhor¶riÏble (#), a. Detestable. [R.] AbÏhor¶ring (#), n. 1. Detestation. Milton. 2. Object of abhorrence. Isa. lxvi. 24. Ø A¶bib (#), n. [Heb. abÆb, lit. an ear of corn. The month was so called from barley being at that time in ear.] The first month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, corresponding nearly to our April. After the Babylonish captivity this month was called Nisan. Kitto. AÏbid¶ance (#), n. The state of abiding; abode; continuance; compliance (with). The Christians had no longer abidance in the holy hill of Palestine. Fuller. A judicious abidance by rules. Helps. AÏbide¶ (#), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Abode (#), formerly Abid (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Abiding (#).] [AS. ¾bÆdan; pref. ? (cf. Goth. usÏ, G. erÏ, orig. meaning out) + bÆdan to bide. See Bide.] 1. To wait; to pause; to delay. [Obs.] Chaucer. 2. To stay; to continue in a place; to have one's abode; to dwell; to sojourn; Ð with with before a person, and commonly with at or in before a place. Let the damsel abide with us a few days. Gen. xxiv. 55. 3. To remain stable or fixed in some state or condition; to continue; to remain. Let every man abide in the same calling. 1 Cor. vii. 20. Followed by by: To abide by. (a) To stand to; to adhere; to maintain. The poor fellow was obstinate enough to abide by what he said at first. Fielding. (b) To acquiesce; to conform to; as, to abide by a decision or an award. AÏbide¶, v. t. 1. To wait for; to be prepared for; to await; to watch for; as, I abide my time. ½I will abide the coming of my lord.¸ Tennyson. [Obs., with a personal object.] Bonds and afflictions abide me. Acts xx. 23. 2. To endure; to sustain; to submit to. [Thou] shalt abide her judgment on it. Tennyson. 3. To bear patiently; to tolerate; to put up with. She could not abide Master Shallow. Shak. 4. [Confused with aby to pay for. See Aby.] To stand the consequences of; to answer for; to suffer for. Dearly I abide that boast so vain. Milton. AÏbid¶er (#), n. 1. One who abides, or continues. [Obs.] ½Speedy goers and strong abiders.¸ Sidney. 2. One who dwells; a resident. Speed. AÏbid¶ing, a. Continuing; lasting. AÏbid¶ingÏly, adv. Permanently. Carlyle. Ø A¶biÏes (#), n. [L., fir tree.] (Bot.) A genus of coniferous trees, properly called Fir, as the balsam fir and the silver fir. The spruces are sometimes also referred to this genus. Ab¶iÏeÏtene (#), n. [L. abies, abietis, a fir tree.] A volatile oil distilled from the resin or balsam of the nut pine (Pinus sabiniana) of California. Ab·iÏet¶ic (#), a. Of or pertaining to the fir tree or its products; as, abietic acid, called also sylvic acid. Watts. Ab¶iÏeÏtin, Ab¶iÏeÏtine } (#), n. [See Abietene.] (Chem.) A resinous obtained from Strasburg turpentine or Canada balsam. It is without taste or smell, is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol (especially at the boiling point), in strong acetic acid, and in ether. Watts. Ab·iÏtin¶ic (#), a. Of or pertaining to abietin; as, abietinic acid. Ab¶iÏtite (#), n. (Chem.) A substance resembling mannite, found in the needles of the common silver fir of Europe (Abies pectinata). Eng. Cyc. Ab¶iÏgail (#), n. [The proper name used as an appellative.] A lady's waitingÐmaid. Pepys. Her abigail reported that Mrs. Gutheridge had a set of night curls for sleeping in. Leslie. AÏbil¶iÏment (#), n. Habiliment. [Obs.] AÏbil¶iÏty (#), n.; pl. Abilities (#). [F. habilet‚, earlier spelling habilit‚ (with silent h), L. habilitas aptitude, ability, fr. habilis apt. See Able.] The quality or state of being able; power to perform, whether physical, moral, intellectual, conventional, or legal; capacity; skill or competence in doing; sufficiency of strength, skill, resources, etc.; Ð in the plural, faculty, talent. Then the disciples, every man according to his ability, determined to send relief unto the brethren. Acts xi. 29. Natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study. Bacon. The public men of England, with much of a peculiar kind of ability. Macaulay. Syn. Ð Capacity; talent; cleverness; faculty; capability; efficiency; aptitude; aptness; address; dexterity; skill. Ability, Capacity. These words come into comparison when applied to the higher intellectual powers. Ability has reference to the active exercise of our faculties. It implies not only native vigor of mind, but that ease and promptitude of execution which arise from mental training. Thus, we speak of the ability with which a book is written, an argument maintained, a negotiation carried on, etc. It always something to be done, and the power of doing it. Capacity has reference to the receptive powers. In its higher exercises it supposes great quickness of apprehension and breadth of intellect, with an uncommon aptitude for acquiring and retaining knowledge. Hence it carries with it the idea of resources and undeveloped power. Thus we speak of the extraordinary capacity of such men as Lord Bacon, Blaise Pascal, and Edmund Burke. ½Capacity,¸ says H. Taylor, ½is requisite to devise, and ability to execute, a great enterprise.¸ The word abilities, in the plural, embraces both these qualities, and denotes high mental endowments. AÏbime¶ or AÏbyme¶ (#), n. [F. abŒme. See Abysm.] A abyss. [Obs.] Ab·iÏoÏgen¶eÏsis (#), n. [Gr. ? priv. + ? life + ?, origin, birth.] (Biol.) The supposed origination of living organisms from lifeless matter; such genesis as does not involve the action of living parents; spontaneous generation; Ð called also abiogeny, and opposed to biogenesis. I shall call the… doctrine that living matter may be produced by not living matter, the hypothesis of abiogenesis. Huxley, 1870. Ab·iÏoÏgeÏnet¶ic (#), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to abiogenesis. Ð Ab·iÏoÏgeÏnet¶icÏalÏly (#), adv. Ab·iÏog¶eÏnist (#), n. (Biol.) One who believes that life can be produced independently of antecedent. Huxley. Ab·iÏog¶eÏnous (#), a. (Biol.) Produced by spontaneous generation. Ab·iÏog¶eÏny (#), n. (Biol.) Same as Abiogenesis. Ab·iÏoÏlog¶icÏal (#), a. [Gr. ? priv. + E. biological.] Pertaining to the study of inanimate things. AbÏir¶riÏtant (#), n. (Med.) A medicine that diminishes irritation. AbÏir¶riÏtate (#), v. t. [Pref. abÏ + irritate.] (Med.) To diminish the sensibility of; to debilitate. AbÏir·riÏta¶tion (#), n. (Med.) A pathological condition opposite to that of irritation; debility; want of strength; asthenia. AbÏir¶riÏtaÏtive (#), a. (Med.) Characterized by abirritation or debility. AÏbit¶ (#), 3d sing. pres. of Abide. [Obs.] Chaucer. Ab¶ject (#), a. [L. abjectus, p. p. of abjicere to throw away; ab + jacere to throw. See Jet a shooting forth.] 1. Cast down; lowÐlying. [Obs.] From the safe shore their floating carcasses And broken chariot wheels; so thick bestrown Abject and lost lay these, covering the flood. Milton. 2. Sunk to a law condition; down in spirit or hope; degraded; servile; groveling; despicable; as, abject posture, fortune, thoughts. ½Base and abject flatterers.¸ Addison. ½An abject liar.¸ Macaulay. And banish hence these abject, lowly dreams. Shak. Syn. Ð Mean; groveling; cringing; meanÐspirited; slavish; ignoble; worthless; vile; beggarly; contemptible; degraded. AbÏject¶ (#), v. t. [From Abject, a.] To cast off or down; hence, to abase; to degrade; to lower; to debase. [Obs.] Donne. Ab¶ject (#), n. A person in the lowest and most despicable condition; a castaway. [Obs.] Shall these abjects, these victims, these outcasts, know any thing of pleasure? I. Taylor. AbÏject¶edÏness (#), n. A very abject or low condition; abjectness. [R.] Boyle. AbÏjec¶tion (#), n. [F. abjection, L. abjectio.] 1. The act of bringing down or humbling. ½The abjection of the king and his realm.¸ Joe. 2. The state of being rejected or cast out. [R.] An adjection from the beatific regions where God, and his angels and saints, dwell forever. Jer. Taylor. 3. A low or downcast state; meanness of spirit; abasement; degradation. That this should be termed baseness, abjection of mind, or servility, is it credible? Hooker. Ab¶jectÏly (#), adv. Meanly; servilely. Ab¶jectÏness, n. The state of being abject; abasement; meanness; servility. Grew. AbÏjudge¶ (#), v. t. [Pref. abÏ + judge, v. Cf. Abjudicate.] To take away by judicial decision. [R.] AbÏju¶diÏcate (#), v. t. [L. abjudicatus, p. p. of abjudicare; ab + judicare. See Judge, and cf. Abjudge.] To reject by judicial sentence; also, to abjudge. [Obs.] Ash. AbÏju·diÏca¶tion (#), n. Rejection by judicial sentence. [R.] Knowles. Ab¶juÏgate (#), v. t. [L. abjugatus, p. p. of abjugare.] To unyoke. [Obs.] Bailey. AbÏjunc¶tive (#), a. [L. abjunctus, p. p. of abjungere; ab + jungere to join.] Exceptional. [R.] It is this power which leads on from the accidental and abjunctive to the universal. I. Taylor. Ab·juÏra¶tion (#), n. [L. abjuratio: cf. F. abjuration.] 1. The act of abjuring or forswearing; a renunciation upon oath; as, abjuration of the realm, a sworn banishment, an oath taken to leave the country and never to return. 2. A solemn recantation or renunciation; as, an abjuration of heresy. Oath of abjuration, an oath asserting the right of the present royal family to the crown of England, and expressly abjuring allegiance to the descendants of the Pretender. Brande & C. AbÏju¶raÏtoÏry (#), a. Containing abjuration. AbÏjure¶ (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Abjured (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Abjuring (#).] [L. abjurare to deny upon oath; ab + jurare to swear, fr. jus, juris, right, law; cf. F. abjurer. See Jury.] 1. To renounce upon oath; to forswear; to disavow; as, to abjure allegiance to a prince. To abjure the realm, is to swear to abandon it forever. 2. To renounce or reject with solemnity; to recant; to abandon forever; to reject; repudiate; as, to abjure errors. ½Magic I here abjure.¸ Shak. Syn. Ð See Renounce. AbÏjure¶, v. i. To renounce on oath. Bp. Burnet. AbÏjure¶ment (#), n. Renunciation. [R.] AbÏjur¶er (#), n. One who abjures. AbÏlac¶tate (#), v. t. [L. ablactatus, p. p. of ablactare; ab + lactare to suckle, fr. lac milk.] To wean. [R.] Bailey. Ab·lacÏta¶tion (#). n. 1. The weaning of a child from the breast, or of young beasts from their dam. Blount. 2. (Hort.) The process of grafting now called inarching, or grafting by approach. AbÏla¶queÏate (#), v. t. [L. ablaqueatus, p. p. of. ablaqueare; fr. ab + laqueus a noose.] To lay bare, as the roots of a tree. [Obs.] Bailey. AbÏla·queÏa¶tion (#), n. [L. ablaqueatio.] The act or process of laying bare the roots of trees to expose them to the air and water. [Obs.] Evelyn. Ab·lasÏtem¶ic (#), a. [Gr. ? priv. + ? growth.] (Biol.) NonÐgerminal. AbÏla¶tion (#), n. [L. ablatio, fr. ablatus p. p. of auferre to carry away; ab + latus, p. p. of ferre carry: cf. F. ablation. See Tolerate.] 1. A carrying or taking away; removal. Jer. Taylor. 2. (Med.) Extirpation. Dunglison. 3. (Geol.) Wearing away; superficial waste. Tyndall. Ab·laÏti¶tious (#), a. Diminishing; as, an ablatitious force. Sir J. Herschel. Ab¶laÏtive (#), a. [F. ablatif, ablative, L. ablativus fr. ablatus. See Ablation.] 1. Taking away or removing. [Obs.] Where the heart is forestalled with misopinion, ablatire directions are found needful to unteach error, ere we can learn truth. Bp. Hall. 2. (Gram.) Applied to one of the cases of the noun in Latin and some other languages, Ð the fundamental meaning of the case being removal, separation, or taking away. Ab¶laÏtive, (Gram.) The ablative case. ablative absolute, costruction in Latin, in which a noun in the ablative case has a participle (either expressed or implied), agreeing with it in gender, number, and case, both words forming a clause by themselves and being unconnected, grammatically, with the rest of the sentence; as, Tarquinio regnante, Pythagoras venit, i. e., Tarquinius reigning, Pythagoras came. Ø Ab¶laut (#), n. [Ger., offÐsound; ab off + laut sound.] (Philol.) The substitution of one root vowel for another, thus indicating a corresponding modification of use or meaning; vowel permutation; as, get, gat, got; sing, song; hang, hung. Earle.
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